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This investigation studied the effect of 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields on the human heart. The electrocardiograms of 27 transmission-line workers and 26 male volunteers were recorded with a Holter recorder both in and outside the fields. The measurements took from half an hour to a few hours. The electric field strength varied from 0.14 to 10.21 kV/m(More)
The timing of budburst of temperate trees is known to be controlled by complicated interactions of temperature and photoperiod. To improve the phenological models of budburst, better knowledge of the internal bud development preceding budburst in relation to environmental cues is needed. We studied the effect of accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures(More)
The timing of bud development in ecodormancy is critical for trees in boreal and temperate regions with seasonally alternating climates. The development of vegetative buds and the growth of primordial shoots (the primordial shoot ratio) in Norway spruce were followed by the naked eye and at stereo and light microscopic levels in fresh-cut and fixed buds(More)
We studied the light and stereomicroscopic structure of developing vegetative buds from a 16-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] of southern Finnish origin in relation to temperature sum and to externally visible changes in the buds before and during bud burst in forcing conditions. Branches were collected on 17 January and transferred to the(More)
We studied the effects of seed origin and sowing time on height development and timing of height growth cessation of first-year silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings in a greenhouse experiment. Seeds of seven origins ranging in latitudes from 58 degrees to 67 degrees N were sown at 1-2-week intervals eight times from May 21 to July 30, 2001. The(More)
This investigation studied the effects of 50-Hz electric and magnetic fields on the pulse rate and blood pressure in humans. Electrocardiograms (ECG) and the blood pressure of 41 male volunteers were recorded using ambulatory methods. Twenty-six subjects were measured in and outside real fields and 15 subjects in and outside "sham' fields. The results of(More)
This investigation studied the effects of 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields on the pulse rate of the human heart. The ECG (electrocardiograms) of 41 male volunteers were recorded with a Holter recorder. Twenty-six subjects were measured in and outside real fields, and 15 subjects were measured in and outside "sham" fields. The blood pressure and EEG(More)
This investigation studied the effect of 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields on the extrasystoles of human heart. The electrocardiograms (ECG) of 27 transmission-line workers and 26 male volunteers were recorded with a Holter monitor both in and outside the fields. The electric field strength varied from 0.14 to 10.21 kV/m and the magnetic flux density from(More)
A new type of a swinging interferometer, the carousel interferometer, is presented, and its properties are studied and compared with other swinging interferometers. The new interferometer is built with five plane mirrors. The optical path difference is accomplished by rotation of a system that consists of four mirrors. The modulation is almost independent(More)
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