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Anabaena is a filamentous, N(2)-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together(More)
Cyanobactins are small cyclic peptides that are produced by a diverse selection of cyanobacteria living in symbioses as well as terrestrial, marine, or freshwater environments. They include compounds with antimalarial, antitumor, and multidrug reversing activities and potential as pharmaceutical leads. Cyanobactins are produced through the proteolytic(More)
Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Many of these compounds are the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide(More)
BACKGROUND Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcystins are produced simultaneously. A recombination event between the first module of mcyB (mcyB1) and mcyC in the microcystin synthetase gene(More)
Cyanobacteria can form massive toxic blooms in fresh and brackish bodies of water and are frequently responsible for the poisoning of animals and pose a health risk for humans. Anabaena is a genus of filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria commonly implicated as a toxin producer in blooms in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. The biology of(More)
BACKGROUND Cyanobacteria produce a wealth of secondary metabolites, including the group of small cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that constitutes the microcystin family. The enzyme complex that directs the biosynthesis of microcystin is encoded in a single large gene cluster (mcy). mcy genes have a widespread distribution among cyanobacteria and are likely(More)
Cyanobactins are cyclic peptides assembled through the cleavage and modification of short precursor proteins. An inactive cyanobactin gene cluster has been described from the genome Microcystis aeruginosa NIES843. Here we report the discovery of active counterparts in strains of the genus Microcystis guided by this silent cyanobactin gene cluster. The end(More)
Nodularia spumigena is a filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium that forms blooms in brackish water bodies. This cyanobacterium produces linear and cyclic peptide protease inhibitors which are thought to be part of a chemical defense against grazers. Here we show that N. spumigena produces structurally novel members of the aeruginosin family of serine(More)
Two novel cyclic lipopeptides, anabaenolysin A and anabaenolysin B, were isolated from two benthic cyanobacterial strains of the genus Anabaena. This novel class of cyanobacterial lipopeptides has a general structure of a small peptide ring consisting of four amino acids from which two are proteinogenic and two unusual; glycine(1), glycine(2),(More)
Many important toxins and antibiotics are produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. Microcystins are a chemically diverse family of potent peptide toxins and the end-products of a hybrid NRPS and PKS secondary metabolic pathway. They are produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and are responsible for the poisoning of humans as well as the deaths of(More)