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Anabaena is a filamentous, N(2)-fixing, and morphologically diverse genus of cyanobacteria found in freshwater and brackish water environments worldwide. It contributes to the formation of toxic blooms in freshwater bodies through the production of a range of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. In the Baltic Sea, Anabaena spp. form late summer blooms, together(More)
The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their(More)
A specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was developed for the quantification of hepatotoxin nodularin-producing Nodularia, one of the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. Specific PCR primers were designed for subunit F of the nodularin synthetase gene (ndaF), which encodes the NdaF subunit of the nodularin synthetase gene complex(More)
Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. Microcystins are potent toxins that are responsible for the poisoning of both humans and animals. These toxins are mainly associated with aquatic cyanobacterial blooms, but here we show that the cyanobacterial symbionts of terrestrial lichens from all over the world(More)
The bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena produces toxic compounds, including nodularin, which is known to have adverse effects on various organisms. We monitored the primary effects of nodularin exposure on physiological parameters in Spinachia oleracea. We present the first evidence for the uptake of nodularin by a terrestrial plant, and show(More)
Mass spectrometric analysis was used to compare the roles of two acetyl esterases (AE, carbohydrate esterase family CE16) and three acetyl xylan esterases (AXE, families CE1 and CE5) in deacetylation of natural substrates, neutral (linear) and 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) substituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS). AEs were similarly restricted in their(More)
The growth characteristics of the sourdough yeast Candida milleri was studied in a carbon-limited aerobic chemostat culture on defined medium. The effect of glucose, xylose, and glucose-xylose mixture on metabolite production and on key enzyme activities was evaluated. Xylose as a sole carbon source was not metabolized by C. milleri. Glucose as a sole(More)
An antibody Fab fragment, ENA5His, capable of enantioselective affinity chromatographic separation of a chiral drug, finrozole, was stabilized against organic solvents by chemical cross-linking. High concentration of methanol is needed to release the bound drug from the antibody fragment. However, in native form the antibody fragment is unstable at these(More)
Ribosomal peptides are produced through the posttranslational modification of short precursor peptides. Cyanobactins are a growing family of cyclic ribosomal peptides produced by cyanobacteria. However, a broad systematic survey of the genetic capacity to produce cyanobactins is lacking. Here we report the identification of 31 cyanobactin gene clusters from(More)