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A novel "photovoltaics (PV) + electrolyzer" concept is presented using a simple, small, and completely stand-alone non-biased device for solar-driven overall water splitting. Three or four spherical-shaped p-n junction silicon balls were successfully connected in series, named "SPHELAR." SPHELAR possessed small projected areas of 0.20 (3PVs) and 0.26 cm(2)(More)
A novel real-time dosimetry technique based on radiation-induced surface activation (RISA) phenomenon has been proposed that is similar to ultraviolet surface activation known typically in anatase-type titanium dioxide. It has been found that the RISA phenomenon occurs on the surface of an oxidised semiconductor or oxidised metal film by radiation(More)
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