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Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential(More)
The freely chosen pedal rate is relatively high and energetically inefficient during submaximal cycling, which is a paradox since the rate of energy expenditure is considered important for voluntary motor behavior in other cyclical activities as, e.g., running. For example, it has been suggested that subjects pedal fast to reduce the perception of force. In(More)
BACKGROUND During infections, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN) are mobilized from their bone marrow stores, travel with blood to the affected tissue, and kill invading microbes there. The signal(s) from the inflammatory site to the marrow are unknown, even though a number of humoral factors that can mobilize PMN, are well known. We have(More)
Aims: Experience morphology of acceleration signals, extract useful information and classify time periods into defined techniques during crosscountry skiing. Method: Three Norwegian crosscountry skiers ski skated one lap in the 2011 world championship sprint track as fast as possible with 5 accelerometers attached to their body and equipment. Algorithms for(More)
Due to the complexity of movement in cross-country skiing (XCS), the muscle activation patterns are not well elucidated. Previous studies have applied surface electromyography (SEMG); however, recent gains in three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) have rendered an alternative approach to investigate muscle(More)
The development of noncircular chain wheels for the enhancement of cycling performance has been in progress for a long time and continues apace. In this study we tested whether submaximal cycling using a non-circular (Biopace) versus a circular chain wheel resulted in lower peak crank torque at preset pedal rates as well as resulting in lower pedal rate and(More)
The aims of the study were to describe the differences between the ski skating techniques V1 and V2 and evaluate reproducibility in complex cyclic hip movements measured by accelerometers. Fourteen elite senior male cross-country skiers rollerskied twice for 1 min (V1 and V2) at 4° inclination and 3 m/s. Tests were repeated after 20 min and again 4 months(More)
Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ±(More)
In regard to simplifying motion analysis and estimating center of mass (COM) in ski skating, this study addressed 3 main questions concerning the use of inertial measurement units (IMU): (1) How accurately can a single IMU estimate displacement of os sacrum (S1) on a person during ski skating? (2) Does incorporating gyroscope and accelerometer data increase(More)
All previously published papers were reproduced with permission from the publisher. ABSTRACT Endurance training is a powerful tool to improve both health and performance. Physical activity is now recognized as an effective treatment and prevention therapy for a wide range of diseases. One of the most profound adaptations to endurance training is increased(More)