Josie M. M. Evans

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OBJECTIVE The antidiabetic properties of metformin are mediated through its ability to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK can suppress tumor formation and inhibit cell growth in addition to lowering blood glucose levels. We tested the hypothesis that metformin reduces the risk of cancer in people with type 2 diabetes. (More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that diabetes may increase the risk of incidence and mortality from cancer. METHODS In a cohort study using record-linkage health-care datasets for Tayside, Scotland in 1993-2004, we followed up 9577 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, and two matched non-diabetic comparators, in the national cancer(More)
under-reporting. Figures may underestimate true numbers. Miscategorisation of probable country of infection by presuming the country with the highest prevalence as the likely country of infection will underestimate the number of infections acquired in the United Kingdom, particularly among people originating from countries with high prevalence. New HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of aneurysm and dissection of the aorta in patients with giant cell arteritis and to assess the effects of these events on these patients. DESIGN Population-based cohort study. SETTING A multispecialty and a primary care clinic in southern Minnesota. PATIENTS 96 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who developed(More)
BACKGROUND Good glycaemic control improves outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the extent to which this depends on adherence to insulin treatment is uncertain. AIM To investigate the association between adherence to insulin and glycaemic control in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN Observational records-based study. (More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the prevalence of use of potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) between older patients living in their own homes versus those living in nursing or residential homes, and to test the association between exposure to PIMs and mortality. DESIGN Cohort study stratified by place of residence. SETTING Tayside, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the mortality of people who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes over 65 years of age with that of nondiabetic individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using a population-based diabetes information system for an observational cohort study in Tayside, Scotland, people who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes over the age of 65 years(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate patterns of self monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients who use insulin and to determine whether frequency of self monitoring is related to glycaemic control. SETTING Diabetes database, Tayside, Scotland. SUBJECTS Patients resident in Tayside in 1993-5 who were using insulin and were registered on the(More)
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — In an observational cohort study using record-linkage databases and based in Tayside, Scotland, U.K., we identified people with type 2 diabetes who were new users of metformin in 1994–2003. We also identified a set of diabetic comparators, individually matched to the metformin users by year of diabetes diagnosis, who had never(More)
AIMS To define the number of people in Tayside, Scotland (population 349 303) with Type 2 diabetes who use metformin, the incidence of contraindications to its continued use in these people and the proportion that discontinued metformin treatment following the development of a contraindication. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of the incidence of(More)