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Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most significant causes of bacterial disease in humans. Here we report the 2,038,615-bp genomic sequence of the gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae R6. Because the R6 strain is avirulent and, more importantly, because it is readily transformed with DNA from homologous species and many heterologous species, it is the(More)
The first step in oral absorption of many medically important peptide-based drugs is mediated by an intestinal proton-dependent peptide transporter. This transporter facilitates the oral absorption of beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the intestine into enterocytes lining the luminal wall. A monoclonal antibody that(More)
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) play a key role in inflammatory processes through production of precursors of eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. Recently, we described the purification of a novel approximately 100-kDa cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) from human monoblast U937 cells that is activated by physiological (intracellular) concentrations of Ca2+ (Kramer,(More)
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test was developed for the detection of mecA in staphylococci. To facilitate this process, a rapid cell lysis procedure was established for the release of DNA from staphylococcal strains. Primers based on the DNA sequence of the mecA gene from Staphylococcus aureus were used in PCRs to screen for the presence of this(More)
We have isolated overlapping phage genomic clones covering an area of 21 kilobases that encodes the human protein C gene. The gene is at least 11.2 kilobases long and is made up of nine exons and eight introns. Two regions homologous to epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor are encoded by amino acids 46-91 and 92-136 and are precisely(More)
Cinnamic acid is a compound of low toxicity, but its molecular structure and the known toxicity of similar molecules, such as styrene, have brought it to the toxicologist's attention. Commercially, its use is permitted as flavouring and it is ubiquitous in products containing cinnamon oil and to a lesser extent in all plants. The related aldehyde, alcohol(More)
The effects of inactivation of the genes encoding penicillin-binding protein 1a (PBP1a), PBP1b, and PBP2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined. Insertional mutants did not exhibit detectable changes in growth rate or morphology, although a pbp1a pbp1b double-disruption mutant grew more slowly than its parent did. Attempts to generate a pbp1a pbp2a(More)
Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae is due to alteration of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). S. pneumoniae PBP 1a belongs to the class A high-molecular-mass PBPs, which harbor transpeptidase (TP) and glycosyltransferase (GT) activities. The GT active site represents a new potential target for the generation of novel(More)
The mecA-27r gene from Staphylococcus aureus 27r encodes penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a-27r), which causes this strain to be methicillin resistant. Removal or replacement of the N-terminal transmembrane domain had no effect on binding of penicillin, but removal of portions of the putative transglycosylase domain (144, 245, or 341 amino acids after the(More)
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial cytoplasmic membrane proteins that catalyze the final steps of the peptidoglycan synthesis. Resistance to beta-lactams in Streptococcus pneumoniae is caused by low-affinity PBPs. S. pneumoniae PBP 2a belongs to the class A high-molecular-mass PBPs having both glycosyltransferase (GT) and transpeptide (TP)(More)