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RORγt(+) Th17 cells are important for mucosal defenses but also contribute to autoimmune disease. They accumulate in the intestine in response to microbiota and produce IL-17 cytokines. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are Th17-inducing commensals that potentiate autoimmunity in mice. RORγt(+) T cells were induced in mesenteric lymph nodes early after(More)
Despite their profound importance in the development of cancer, the extracellular cues that target cell invasion through basement membrane barriers remain poorly understood. A central obstacle has been the difficulty of studying the interactions between invading cells and basement membranes in vivo. Using the genetically and visually tractable model of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Epithelial stem cells in the stomach are responsible for constant renewal of the epithelium through generation of multiple gastric cell lineages that populate the gastric glands. However, gastric stem or progenitor cells have not been well-characterized because of the lack of specific markers that permit their prospective recognition. We(More)
The development of the anterior foregut of the mammalian embryo involves changes in the behavior of both the epithelial endoderm and the adjacent mesoderm. Morphogenetic processes that occur include the extrusion of midline notochord cells from the epithelial definitive endoderm, the folding of the endoderm into a foregut tube, and the subsequent separation(More)
Integrin expression and activity have been strongly correlated with developmental and pathological processes involving cell invasion through basement membranes. The role of integrins in mediating these invasions, however, remains unclear. Utilizing the genetically and visually accessible model of anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans, we have recently(More)
Though critical to normal development and cancer metastasis, how cells traverse basement membranes is poorly understood. A central impediment has been the challenge of visualizing invasive cell interactions with basement membrane in vivo. By developing live-cell imaging methods to follow anchor cell (AC) invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identify(More)
The receptor deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) directs dynamic polarizing activities in animals toward its extracellular ligand netrin. How DCC polarizes toward netrin is poorly understood. By performing live-cell imaging of the DCC orthologue UNC-40 during anchor cell invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have found that UNC-40 clusters, recruits F-actin(More)
Polymorphisms in the essential autophagy gene Atg16L1 have been linked with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, a major type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the inability to control intestinal bacteria is thought to underlie IBD, the role of Atg16L1 during extracellular intestinal bacterial infections has not been sufficiently examined and(More)
The Netrin family of extracellular ligands and their receptors were the first identified signaling pathway regulating axon guidance. Subsequent work across model systems has begun to reveal the interactions that take place downstream of Netrin reception to facilitate growth cone migration. Though intensely studied, many aspects of this signaling system(More)
The gonad in Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding complex morphogenetic processes including cellular movement, cell fusion, cell invasion and cell polarity during development. One class of signaling proteins known to be critical for the cellular events underlying morphogenesis is the Rho family GTPases, particularly RhoA,(More)