Joshua W. Hamilton

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BACKGROUND Arsenic exposure is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. We recently reported that 5-week exposure to environmentally relevant levels (10 and 100 ppb) of As in drinking water significantly altered components of the innate immune response in mouse lung, which we hypothesize is an important contributor to the increased risk of lung(More)
Chronic human exposure to nonovertly toxic doses of arsenic is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Although its carcinogenic mechanism is still unknown, arsenic does not directly cause DNA damage or mutations and is therefore thought to act principally as a co-mutagen, co-carcinogen, and/or tumor promoter. Previous studies in our laboratory(More)
The mechanisms of action of drinking water arsenic in the lung and the threshold for biologic effects remain controversial. Our study utilizes Affymetrix 22,690 transcript oligonucleotide microarrays to assess the long-term effects of increasing doses of drinking water arsenic on expression levels in the mouse lung. Mice were exposed at levels commonly(More)
Certain forms of the heavy metals arsenic and chromium are considered human carcinogens, although they are believed to act through very different mechanisms. Chromium(VI) is believed to act as a classic and mutagenic agent, and DNA/chromatin appears to be the principal target for its effects. In contrast, arsenic(III) is considered nongenotoxic, but is able(More)
Examining global effects of toxic metals on gene expression can be useful for elucidating patterns of biological response, discovering underlying mechanisms of toxicity, and identifying candidate metal-specific genetic markers of exposure and response. Using a 1,200 gene nylon array, we examined changes in gene expression following low-dose, acute exposures(More)
Although many previous investigations have studied how mercury compounds cause cell death, sub-cytotoxic levels may affect mechanisms essential for the proper development of the nervous system. The present study investigates whether low doses of methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury chloride (HgCl2) can modulate the activity of JAK/STAT signaling, a pathway that(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to drinking water arsenic is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. Exposure to As is associated with an increased risk of lung disease, which may make it a unique toxicant, because lung toxicity is usually associated with inhalation rather than ingestion. OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to examine mRNA and(More)
The mechanism(s) by which arsenic exposure contributes to human cancer risk is unknown ; however, several indirect cocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Many studies support the role of As in altering one or more DNA repair processes. In the present study we used individual-level exposure data and biologic samples to investigate the effects of As(More)
BACKGROUND Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to excess arsenic in drinking water has been strongly associated with increased risks of multiple cancers, diabetes, heart disease, and reproductive and developmental problems in humans. We previously demonstrated that As, a potent endocrine disruptor at low, environmentally relevant levels, alters steroid signaling at the level(More)