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Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that remains in hepatocytes even during(More)
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Program in Biostatistics and Biomathematics, and Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Division of infectious diseases, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Departments of Epidemiology, Virology Research Clinic, and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been incurable to date because effective antiviral therapies target only replicating viruses and do not eradicate latently integrated or nonreplicating episomal viral genomes. Endonucleases that can target and cleave critical regions within latent viral(More)
Most chronic viral infections are managed with small molecule therapies that inhibit replication but are not curative because non-replicating viral forms can persist despite decades of suppressive treatment. There are therefore numerous strategies in development to eradicate all non-replicating viruses from the body. We are currently engineering DNA(More)
Incurable chronic viral infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One potential approach to cure persistent viral infections is via the use of targeted endonucleases. Nevertheless, a potential concern for endonuclease-based antiviral therapies is the emergence of treatment resistance. Here we detect for the first time an(More)
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is periodically shed throughout the human genital tract. Although a high viral load correlates with the development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are absent, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their clinical course can be severe with progression to lower respiratory tract infection, co-infection with serious pulmonary co-pathogens, and high mortality. Non-myeloablative conditioning regimens achieve engraftment without(More)
In HIV-infected tuberculosis patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes/mm, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) improves survival but can be complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and drug toxicity. We conducted a decision analysis in hypothetical cohorts of 1000 patients in which HAART was initiated during the first 2 months of(More)
BACKGROUND Skin and mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) shedding predominantly occurs in short subclinical episodes. We assessed whether standard-dose or high-dose antiviral therapy reduces the frequency of such shedding. METHODS HSV-2-seropositive, HIV-seronegative people were enrolled at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic (WA,(More)
BACKGROUND HIV prevalence is low in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, though the risk or potential for further spread in the future is not well understood. Behavioral surveys are limited in this region and when available have serious limitations in assessing the risk of HIV acquisition. We demonstrate the potential use of herpes simplex(More)