Joshua T. Schiffer

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BACKGROUND HIV prevalence is low in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, though the risk or potential for further spread in the future is not well understood. Behavioral surveys are limited in this region and when available have serious limitations in assessing the risk of HIV acquisition. We demonstrate the potential use of herpes simplex(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations in the genital tract are responsible for mucocutaneous lesions and transmission and manifest as discrete shedding episodes. METHODS We analyzed duration, peak copy number, and expansion and decay rates of 1020 shedding episodes in 531 immunocompetent HSV-2-seropositive persons from whom daily(More)
Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that remains in hepatocytes even during(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their clinical course can be severe with progression to lower respiratory tract infection, co-infection with serious pulmonary co-pathogens, and high mortality. Non-myeloablative conditioning regimens achieve engraftment without(More)
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection that is the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Infection is life long and is characterized by repeated asymptomatic and symptomatic shedding episodes of virus that are initiated when virus is released from neurons into the genital tract. The pattern of HSV-2 release from neurons into(More)
OBJECTIVES The presence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) shedding episodes correlates with transmission to sexual partners and neonates, and some episodes correlate with disease manifestations. HSV-2-targeted guanosine analogues are effective when given on a prophylactic basis, but do not completely eliminate recurrences, asymptomatic shedding or(More)
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is shed episodically, leading to occasional genital ulcers and efficient transmission. The biology explaining highly variable shedding patterns, in an infected person over time, is poorly understood. We sampled the genital tract for HSV DNA at several time intervals and concurrently at multiple sites, and derived a spatial(More)
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Program in Biostatistics and Biomathematics, and Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Division of infectious diseases, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Departments of Epidemiology, Virology Research Clinic, and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been incurable to date because effective antiviral therapies target only replicating viruses and do not eradicate latently integrated or nonreplicating episomal viral genomes. Endonucleases that can target and cleave critical regions within latent viral(More)
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is periodically shed throughout the human genital tract. Although a high viral load correlates with the development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are absent, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation(More)