Joshua T. Butcher

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Previous studies have demonstrated that the metabolic syndrome is associated with impaired skeletal muscle arteriolar function, although integrating observations into a conceptual framework for impaired perfusion in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) has been limited. This study builds on previous work to evaluate in situ arteriolar hemodynamics in cremaster(More)
Both purinergic signaling through nucleotides such as ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) and noradrenergic signaling through molecules such as norepinephrine regulate vascular tone and blood pressure. Pannexin1 (Panx1), which forms large-pore, ATP-releasing channels, is present in vascular smooth muscle cells in peripheral blood vessels and participates in(More)
A major challenge facing public health is the increased incidence and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a clinical condition characterized by excess adiposity, impaired glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and moderate hypertension. The greatest concern for this syndrome is the profound increase in risk for development of peripheral vascular disease (PVD)(More)
The metabolic syndrome is associated with elevated peripheral vascular disease risk, characterized by mismatched blood flow delivery/distribution and local metabolism. The obese Zucker rat (OZR) model of the metabolic syndrome exhibits myriad vascular impairments, although their integrated impact on functional hyperaemia remains unclear. In this study,(More)
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)—a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After(More)
Inflammatory cell recruitment to local sites of tissue injury and/or infection is controlled by a plethora of signalling processes influencing cell-to-cell interactions between the vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in post-capillary venules and circulating leukocytes. Recently, ATP-sensitive P2Y purinergic receptors have emerged as downstream regulators of(More)
A key clinical outcome for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in patients is a progressive decay in skeletal muscle performance and its ability to resist fatigue with elevated metabolic demand. We have demonstrated that PVD in obese Zucker rats (OZR) is partially due to increased perfusion distribution heterogeneity at successive microvascular bifurcations(More)
OBJECTIVE Hemoglobin α (Hb α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) form a macromolecular complex at myoendothelial junctions; the functional role of this interaction remains undefined. To test if coupling of eNOS and Hb α regulates nitric oxide signaling, vascular reactivity, and blood pressure using a mimetic peptide of Hb α to disrupt this(More)
To determine the impact of progressive elevations in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) risk on microvascular function, we utilized eight rat models spanning "healthy" to "high PVD risk" and used a multiscale approach to interrogate microvascular function and outcomes: healthy: Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR); mild risk: SDR on high-salt(More)
Evolution of metabolic syndrome is associated with a progressive reduction in skeletal muscle microvessel density, known as rarefaction. Although contributing to impairments to mass transport and exchange, the temporal development of rarefaction and the contributing mechanisms that lead to microvessel loss are both unclear and critical areas for(More)