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Web users are shown an invalid certificate warning when their browser cannot validate the identity of the websites they are visiting. While these warnings often appear in benign situations, they can also signal a man-in-the-middle attack. We conducted a survey of over 400 Internet users to examine their reactions to and understanding of current SSL(More)
Objects model the world, and state is fundamental to a faithful modeling. Engineers use state machines to understand and reason about state transitions, but programming languages provide little support for building software based on state abstractions. We propose Plaid, a language in which objects are modeled not just in terms of classes, but in terms of(More)
Objects model the world, and state is fundamental to a faithful modeling. Engineers use state machines to understand and reason about state transitions, but programming languages provide little support for reasoning about or implementing these state machines, causing software defects and lost productivity when objects are misused. We propose(More)
Though immutability has been long-proposed as a way to prevent bugs in software, little is known about how to make immutability support in programming languages effective for software engineers. We designed a new formalism that extends Java to support transitive class immutability, the form of immutability for which there is the strongest empirical support,(More)
Electron cryo-microscopy of 'single particles' is a powerful method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) architectures of complex cellular assemblies. The pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex couples the activity of three component enzymes (E1, E2 and E3) in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to generate acetyl-CoA, linking glycolysis and(More)
Writing concurrent applications is extremely challenging, not only in terms of producing bug-free and maintainable software, but also for enabling developer productivity. In this article we present the Æminium concurrent-by-default programming language. Using Æminium programmers express data dependencies rather than control flow between(More)
Engineers in many disciplines use state machines to reason about system changes, and many object-oriented libraries require their clients to follow state machine protocols. No existing language, however, has native support for state machines, and programmers often lose productivity and introduce errors when trying to understand and follow interaction(More)
Programming languages can restrict state change by preventing it entirely (immutability) or by restricting which clients may modify state (read-only restrictions). The benefits of immutability and read-only restrictions in software structures have been long-argued by practicing software engineers, researchers, and programming language designers. However,(More)
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) often define protocols --- restrictions on the order of client calls to API methods. API protocols are common and difficult to use, which has generated tremendous research effort in alternative specification, implementation, and verification techniques. However, little is understood about the barriers programmers(More)
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) often define object protocols. Objects with protocols have a finite number of states and in each state a different set of method calls is valid. Many researchers have developed protocol verification tools because protocols are notoriously difficult to follow correctly. However, recent research suggests that a major(More)