Learn More
Persistent suppression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function produces enduring structural changes in neocortical and limbic regions in a pattern similar to changes reported in schizophrenia. This similarity suggests that chronic NMDA receptor antagonism in animals may represent a useful model of neurobiological and related cognitive deficits in(More)
A number of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve learning in several rodent models of cognition. Given that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in frontal lobe-dependent cognitive functions (e.g., working memory and cognitive flexibility), we examined whether PDE inhibitors would attenuate cognitive(More)
Currently accepted treatments for schizophrenia can effectively control positive symptoms but have limited impact on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The purpose of these experiments was to address this unmet need by characterizing the effects of classical and second-generation antipsychotics on cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. An(More)
Neuronal nicotinic α7 acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) are expressed primarily in the brain and are implicated in modulating many cognitive functions (e.g., attention, working and episodic memory). Not surprisingly, much effort has been committed to the development of molecules acting at α7nAChRs as potential therapies for a variety of central nervous(More)
Impairments in multiple aspects of attentional and executive function follow damage to cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. Affective and attentional set-shifting represent two aspects of executive function controlled by different sectors of the prefrontal cortex. The involvement of cholinergic neural mechanisms in these aspects of executive(More)
Alternative non-drug reinforcers have been demonstrated to decrease drug-reinforced behavior by both decreasing relative reinforcing efficacy and substituting for the drug reinforcer. The effect of saccharin on responding maintained by orally delivered phencyclidine (PCP) was examined in this study using concurrent progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of(More)
We evaluated young (3-4 months) and aged (22-24 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats in an attentional set-shifting procedure that assessed reversal, intradimensional shift (IDS), and extradimensional shift (EDS) discrimination learning tasks within one test session. These aspects of discrimination learning are sensitive to damage to distinct regions of frontal(More)
Habituation may be relevant for understanding how sensory stimuli influence factors related to ingestive behavior. In the first of three experiments in humans we showed that salivation and hedonic ratings to lemon or lime juice habituated within 10 presentations, and dishabituation of the salivation and hedonic ratings to the original juice were observed(More)
The effect of feeding conditions on the reinforcing efficacy of orally-delivered drugs was evaluated using a progressive-ratio (PR) paradigm and a behavioral economic analysis of demand. Seven monkeys self-administered phencyclidine (PCP) (0.06, 0.12, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/ml) or ethanol (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32% wt/vol) and concurrent water from two drinking(More)