Joshua R Lewis

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Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel(More)
Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects(More)
This paper reviews progress in the COST 647 rocky littoral programme involving three patellids, two trochids and two cirripedes on European Atlantic coasts. Northern geographical limits are set primarily by repopulation failure, and northern populations are characterised by short, mid-summer breeding periods, high frequency of failed or poor recruitments(More)
We describe a user study that examined the relationship between the quality of an Information Retrieval system and the effectiveness of its users in performing a task. The task involves finding answer facets of questions pertaining to a collection of newswire documents over a six month period. We artificially created sets of ranked lists at increasing(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence from animal and in vitro models suggest a role of probiotic bacteria in improving glycaemic control and delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence from controlled trials in humans is limited. The objective was to determine if the probiotic bacteria L. acidophilus La5 and B. animalis subsp lactis Bb12,(More)
The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well(More)
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in the elderly. Recent studies have suggested that long-term PPI therapy is associated with fractures in the elderly, however the mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the association between long-term PPI therapy ≥1 year and fracture risk factors including bone structure, falls, and balance-related(More)
Concern has been expressed that calcium supplementation, a key intervention for preventing osteoporotic fracture in older women, may increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To evaluate the risk further, an examination of complete verified atherosclerotic vascular hospitalization and mortality data from a 5-year randomized, controlled trial(More)
Daily vitamin D in addition to calcium supplementation reduces falls and fractures in older women. However, poor adherence to therapy is a common clinical problem. To examine the effects of supervised oral 3-monthly vitamin D therapy on falls, muscle strength, and mobility, we conducted a 9-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 686(More)