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T2-type RNases are responsible for self-pollen recognition and rejection in three distantly related families of flowering plants-the Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Rosaceae. We used phylogenetic analyses of 67 T2-type RNases together with information on intron number and position to determine whether the use of RNases for self-incompatibility in these(More)
We review and analyze the available literature on the frequency and distribution of self-incompatibility (SI) among angiosperms and find that SI is reported in more than 100 families and occurs in an estimated 39% of species. SI frequently has been lost but rarely has been gained during angiosperm diversification, and there is no evidence that any(More)
Identifying traits that affect rates of speciation and extinction and, hence, explain differences in species diversity among clades is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Detecting such traits is especially difficult when they undergo frequent transitions between states. Self-incompatibility, the ability of hermaphrodites to enforce outcrossing, is(More)
The gene SFB encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S-haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) reaction in Prunus (Rosaceae). To further characterize Prunus SFB, we cloned and sequenced four additional alleles from sweet cherry (P. avium), SFB 1 , SFB 2 , SFB 4 , and SFB 5.(More)
Allelic diversity at the self-incompatibility (S-) locus in the ground cherry, Physalis crassifolia (Solanaceae), was surveyed in a natural population occurring in Deep Canyon, CA, using a molecular assay to determine the genotype of individual plants. A total of 28 different S-alleles were identified and sequenced from a sample of 22 plants. All plants(More)
The bilobed stigma of many species in the order Scrophulariales closes in response to touch by an animal pollinator. In hummingbird-pollinated bush monkey flower, Mimulus aurantiacus (Scrophulariaceae), closure is rapid, occurring within seconds of tactile stimulus. We investigated the proximate causes of stigma closure and subsequent reopening in M.(More)
Loss of complex characters is thought to be irreversible (Dollo's law). However, hypotheses of irreversible evolution are remarkably difficult to test, especially when character transitions are frequent. In such cases, inference of ancestral states, in the absence of fossil evidence, is uncertain and represents the single greatest constraint for(More)
Balanced genetic polymorphism has been proposed as a source from which to infer population history complementary to that of neutral genetic polymorphism, because genetic polymorphism maintained by balancing selection permits inferences about population size over much longer spans of time. However, empirical data for both S genes and major histocompatibility(More)
Steep clines in ecologically important traits may be caused by divergent natural selection. However, processes that do not necessarily invoke ongoing selection, such as secondary contact or restricted gene flow, can also cause patterns of phenotypic differentiation over short spatial scales. Distinguishing among all possible scenarios is difficult, but an(More)