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Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present(More)
As a result of the widespread use of Cd in industry and its extensive dissemination in the environment, there has been considerable interest in the identification of early biomarkers of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is not detectable in normal kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine following ischemic or(More)
Cadmium (Cd) is an important industrial and environmental pollutant that can produce a wide variety of adverse effects in humans and animals. A growing volume of evidence indicates that the vascular endothelium may be one of the primary targets of Cd toxicity in vivo. Studies over the past 20 years have shown that Cd, at relatively low, sublethal(More)
Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) has been qualified by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as a highly sensitive and specific urinary biomarker to monitor drug-induced kidney injury in preclinical studies and on a case-by-case basis in clinical trials. Here we report the development and evaluation of a rapid direct(More)
Cell adhesion molecules are integral cell-membrane proteins that maintain cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion and in some cases act as regulators of intracellular signaling cascades. In the kidney, cell adhesion molecules, such as the cadherins, the catenins, the zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), occludin and the claudins are essential for maintaining(More)
Vascular system function involves complex interactions among the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, the immune system, and the nervous system. The toxic metals cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb) can target the vascular system in a variety of ways, ranging from hemorrhagic injury to subtle pathogenic remodeling and metabolic changes. Acute Cd(More)
Recent epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between exposure to the environmental pollutant cadmium (Cd) and the incidence and severity of diabetes. In this review, we examine the literature suggesting a relationship between Cd exposure, elevated blood glucose levels, and the development of diabetes. In addition we review human and animal(More)
Ethidium homodimer is a cell-membrane impermeant nuclear fluorochrome that has been widely used to identify necrotic cells in culture. Here, we describe a novel technique for evaluating necrosis of epithelial cells in the proximal tubule that involves perfusing ethidium homodimer through the intact rat kidney. As a positive control for inducing necrosis,(More)