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One of the best-known dichotomies in neuroscience is the division of neurons in the mammalian primary visual cortex into simple and complex cells. Simple cells have receptive fields with separate on and off subregions and give phase-sensitive responses to moving gratings, whereas complex cells have uniform receptive fields and are phase invariant. The phase(More)
Simple cells in the primary visual cortex have segregated ON and OFF subregions in their receptive fields, while complex cells have overlapping ON and OFF subregions. These two cell types form the extremes at each end of a continuum of receptive field types. Hubel and Wiesel in 1962 suggested a hierarchical scheme of processing whereby spatially offset(More)
We study the extent to which the lateral ocelli of dragonflies are able to resolve and map spatial information, following the recent finding that the median ocellus is adapted for spatial resolution around the horizon. Physiological optics are investigated by the hanging-drop technique and related to morphology as determined by sectioning and(More)
Adult dragonflies augment their compound eyes with three simple eyes known as the dorsal ocelli. While the ocellar system is known to mediate stabilizing head reflexes during flight, the ability of the ocellar retina to dynamically resolve the environment is unknown. For the first time, we directly measured the angular sensitivities of the photoreceptors of(More)
In adult dragonflies, the compound eyes are augmented by three simple eyes known as the dorsal ocelli. The outputs of ocellar photoreceptors converge on relatively few second-order neurons with large axonal diameters (L-neurons). We determine L-neuron morphology by iontophoretic dye injection combined with three-dimensional reconstructions. Using(More)
Neurons in the primary visual cortex are often classified as either simple or complex based on the linearity (or otherwise) of their response to spatial luminance contrast. In practice, classification is typically based on Fourier analysis of a cell's response to an optimal drifting sine-wave grating. Simple cells are generally considered to be linear and(More)
Among other sensory modalities, flight stabilization in insects is performed with the aid of visual feedback from three simple eyes (ocelli). It is thought that each ocellus acts as a single wide-field sensor that detects changes in light intensity. We challenge this notion by providing evidence that, when light-adapted, the large retinal L-neurons in the(More)
Recent behavioural studies have demonstrated that honeybees use visual feedback to stabilize their gaze. However, little is known about the neural circuits that perform the visual motor computations that underlie this ability. We investigated the motor neurons that innervate two neck muscles (m44 and m51), which produce stabilizing yaw movements of the(More)
By measuring insect compensatory optomotor reflexes to visual motion, researchers have examined the computational mechanisms of the motion processing system. However, establishing the spectral sensitivity of the neural pathways that underlie this motion behavior has been difficult, and the contribution of the simple eyes (ocelli) has been rarely examined.(More)
Motion processing in visual neurons is often understood in terms of how they integrate light stimuli in space and time. These integrative properties, known as the spatiotemporal receptive fields (STRFs), are sometimes obtained using white-noise techniques where a continuous random contrast sequence is delivered to each spatial location within the cell's(More)