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Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade recently was discovered to play an important role in synaptic plasticity in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. However, the upstream mechanisms regulating MAPK activity and the downstream effectors of MAPK in the hippocampus are uncharacterized. In the present studies we observed that hippocampal(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK has recently become a focus of studies of synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Due to the prominent role of potassium channels in regulating the electrical properties of membranes, modulation of these channels by ERK could play an important role in mediating learning-related synaptic plasticity in the CNS.(More)
Recent evidence suggests that K(+) channels composed of Kv4.2 alpha-subunits underlie a transient current in hippocampal CA1 neurons and ventricular myocytes, and activation of the cAMP second messenger cascade has been shown to modulate this transient current. We determined if Kv4.2 alpha-subunits were directly phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model for long-term memory, is generally acknowledged to consist of both a short-term phase that is characterized by a dependence on autonomous protein kinase activity, and a long-term phase that is characterized by a dependence on changes in gene expression and new protein synthesis. Similarly, long-term memory(More)
Voltage-gated A-type potassium channels such as Kv4.2 regulate generation of action potentials and are localized abundantly in the hippocampus and striatum. Phosphorylation consensus sites for various kinases exist within the sequence of the potassium channel subunit Kv4.2, including consensus sites for extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen(More)
BACKGROUND Riverine ecosystems, highly sensitive to climate change and human activities, are characterized by rapid environmental change to fluctuating water levels and siltation, causing stress on their biological components. We have little understanding of mechanisms by which riverine plant species have developed adaptive strategies to cope with stress in(More)
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a robust and long-lasting form of synaptic plasticity that is the leading candidate for a cellular mechanism contributing to mammalian learning and memory. Investigations over the past decade have revealed that the biochemistry of LTP induction involves mechanisms of great subtlety and complexity. This review(More)
CONSTANS (CO) is an important flowering-time gene in the photoperiodic flowering pathway of annual Arabidopsis thaliana in which overexpression of CO induces early flowering, whereas mutations in CO cause delayed flowering. The closest homologs of CO in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.) are CO1 and CO2. A previous report showed that the CO2/FLOWERING(More)
Perennial woody species, such as poplar (Populus spp.) must acquire necessary heavy metals like zinc (Zn) while avoiding potential toxicity. Poplar contains genes with sequence homology to genes HMA4 and PCS1 from other species which are involved in heavy metal regulation. While basic genomic conservation exists, poplar does not have a hyperaccumulating(More)
Cost-effective “green” methods of producing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are being examined because of the potential of these NPs as antimicrobials. Ag NPs were generated from Ag ions using extracellular metabolites from a soil-borne Pythium species. The NPs were variable in size, but had one dimension less than 50 nm and were biocoated; aggregation and coating(More)