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A convenient method for isoelectric focusing of intact polymeric IgA and IgM is described. This technique employed composite gels containing 1.0% acrylamide and 0.75% agarose which exhibited minimal electroendosmotic properties. The spectrotypes obtained with mouse IgA myeloma proteins, a human IgA myeloma and rabbit secretory IgA preparations were compared(More)
Tumour hypoxia represents a major challenge in the effective treatment of solid cancerous tumours using conventional approaches. As oxygen is a key substrate for Photo-/Sono-dynamic Therapy (PDT/SDT), hypoxia is also problematic for the treatment of solid tumours using these techniques. The ability to deliver oxygen to the vicinity of the tumour increases(More)
This paper reviews the uses of magnetism and ultrasound in therapeutic delivery applications. Emphasis is placed upon magnetic nanoparticles and microbubble ultrasound contrast agents. The underlying physical principles, history, key developments and limitations of these techniques for drug and gene delivery in vitro and in vivo are explored. The(More)
Bucket-handle tear is a displaced vertical longitudinal tear of the meniscus. Several signs of the tear have been described on MRI but none in the axial plane. We propose to describe such a sign named the V-sign that is seen at the junction of the displaced fragment and the meniscus, which is in place. MRI imaging of 25 surgically proven bucket-handle tears(More)
A key challenge in the development of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) as a clinically relevant technique is designing systems that can apply sufficient magnetic force to actuate magnetic drug carriers at useful tissue depths. In this study an optimisation routine was developed to generate designs of Halbach arrays consisting of multiple layers of high grade,(More)
Encapsulated microbubbles are well established as highly effective contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. There remain, however, some significant challenges to fully realize the potential of microbubbles in advanced applications such as perfusion mapping, targeted drug delivery, and gene therapy. A key requirement is accurate characterization of the(More)
The ability to successfully target the delivery of drugs and other therapeutic molecules has been a key goal of biomedical research for many decades. Despite highly promising in vitro results, however, successful translation of targeted drug delivery into clinical use has been extremely limited. This study investigates the significance of the(More)
Ultrasound (US), in combination with microbubbles, has been found to be a potential alternative to viral therapies for transfecting biological cells. The translation of this technique to the clinical environment, however, requires robust and systematic optimization of the acoustic parameters needed to achieve a desired therapeutic effect. Currently, a(More)
Mimicry theory predicts that mimics in a Batesian mimicry complex evolve to resemble models closely, and that there is a limit on the numbers of mimics relative to models. For hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae), supposed mimics of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, neither of these is true; many mimics are imperfect and in the UK and Europe they outnumber(More)
A new formulation of volatile nanodroplets stabilized by a protein and polymer coating and loaded with magnetic nanoparticles is developed. The droplets show enhanced stability and phase conversion efficiency upon ultrasound exposure compared with existing formulations. Magnetic targeting, encapsulation, and release of an anticancer drug are demonstrated in(More)