Joshua N. Milstein

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We demonstrate that human electrophysiological recordings of the local field potential (LFP) from intracranial electrodes, acquired from a variety of cerebral regions, show a ubiquitous 1/f(2) scaling within the power spectrum. We develop a quantitative model that treats the generation of these fields in an analogous way to that of electronic shot noise,(More)
Based on the membrane currents generated by an action potential in a biologically realistic model of a pyramidal, hippocampal cell within rat CA1, we perform a moment expansion of the extracellular field potential. We decompose the potential into both inverse and classical moments and show that this method is a rapid and efficient way to calculate the(More)
We show that minuscule entropic forces, on the order of 100 fN, can prevent the formation of DNA loops-a ubiquitous means of regulating the expression of genes. We observe a tenfold decrease in the rate of LacI-mediated DNA loop formation when a tension of 200 fN is applied to the substrate DNA, biasing the thermal fluctuations that drive loop formation and(More)
Studying the mechanical properties of short segments of dsDNA can provide insight into various biophysical phenomena, from DNA looping to the organization of nucleosomes. Scanning atomic force microscopy (AFM) is able to acquire images of single DNA molecules with near-basepair resolution. From many images, one may use equilibrium statistical mechanics to(More)
The bacterial chromosome is under varying levels of mechanical stress due to a high degree of crowding and dynamic protein-DNA interactions experienced within the nucleoid. DNA tension is difficult to measure in cells and its functional significance remains unclear although in vitro experiments have implicated a range of biomechanical phenomena. Using(More)
The H-NS (heat-stable nucleoid structuring) protein affects both nucleoid compaction and global gene regulation. H-NS appears to act primarily as a silencer of AT-rich genetic material acquired by horizontal gene transfer. As such, it is key in the regulation of most genes involved in virulence and in adaptation to new environmental niches. Here we review(More)
We predict a direct and observable signature of the superfluid phase in a quantum Fermi gas, in a temperature regime already accessible in current experiments. We apply the theory of resonance superfluidity to a gas confined in a harmonic potential and demonstrate that a significant increase in density will be observed in the vicinity of the trap center.
Living cells provide a fluctuating, out-of-equilibrium environment in which genes must coordinate cellular function. DNA looping, which is a common means of regulating transcription, is very much a stochastic process; the loops arise from the thermal motion of the DNA and other fluctuations of the cellular environment. We present single-molecule(More)
DNA is traditionally seen as a linear sequence of instructions for cellular functions that are expressed through biochemical processes. Cellular DNA, however, is also organized as a complex hierarchical structure with a mosaic of mechanical features, and a growing body of evidence is now emerging to imply that these mechanical features are connected to(More)
The maintenance of high-copy number plasmids within bacteria had been commonly thought to result from free diffusion and random segregation. Recent microscopy experiments, however, observed high-copy number plasmids clustering into discrete foci, which seemed to contradict this model, and hinted at an undiscovered active mechanism, as often found in(More)