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Malaria is a highly prevalent disease caused by infection by Plasmodium spp., which infect hepatocytes and erythrocytes. Blood-stage infections cause devastating symptoms and can persist for years. Antibodies and CD4(+) T cells are thought to protect against blood-stage infections. However, there has been considerable difficulty in developing an efficacious(More)
Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)(More)
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity worldwide with reports of over 200-500 million infected individuals and nearly 1 million deaths each year. Antibodies have been shown to play a critical role in controlling the blood stage of this disease; however, in malaria-endemic areas antibody immunity is slow to develop despite years of exposure to Plasmodium spp.(More)
Many pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., exploit the interaction of programmed death-1 (PD-1) with PD-1-ligand-1 (PD-L1) to "deactivate" T cell functions, but the role of PD-L2 remains unclear. We studied malarial infections to understand the contribution of PD-L2 to immunity. Here we have shown that higher PD-L2 expression on blood dendritic cells, from(More)
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., is responsible for over 200 million infections worldwide and 650,000 deaths annually. Until recently, it was thought that blood-stage parasites survived and replicated in hepatocytes and red blood cells exclusively. We recently showed that blood-stage parasites could infect, survive and replicate within plasmacytoid(More)
Even after years of experiencing malaria, caused by infection with Plasmodium species, individuals still have incomplete immunity and develop low-density parasitemia on re-infection. Previous studies using the P. chabaudi (Pch) mouse model to understand the reason for chronic malaria, found that mice with a deletion of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1KO)(More)
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