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Biomarkers are urgently needed for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. Both DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein, two proteins critically involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis, have been tested as disease biomarkers in several recent studies with inconsistent results. These have been largely due to variation in the protein(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a clear need to develop biomarkers for Parkinson disease (PD) diagnosis, differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, and monitoring disease progression. We and others have demonstrated that a decrease in DJ-1 and/or α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential index for Parkinson disease diagnosis, but not for PD(More)
Growing evidence suggests that extracellular alpha-synuclein (eSNCA) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related synucleinopathies by producing neurotoxicity directly or via activation of glia. However, the mechanisms involved in the trafficking of eSNCA in neurons and/or glia remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) typically affects the cortical regions during the later stages of disease, with neuronal loss, gliosis, and formation of diffuse cortical Lewy bodies in a significant portion of patients with dementia. To identify novel proteins involved in PD progression, we prepared synaptosomal fractions from the frontal cortices of pathologically(More)
Complement activation, a key component of neuroinflammation, has been reported in both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether complement activation and neuroinflammation in general are distinctly different from each another in major neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, cerebrospinal fluid(More)
In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the(More)
Recent studies have identified exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as a risk factor for deficits in cognitive functioning seen in children as well as adults. Additionally, similar alterations in learning and memory have also been observed in animal models of PBDE exposure. However, given these findings, the molecular alterations that may(More)
The contribution of environmental toxicants to the etiology and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been clearly established, with organochlorine insecticides routinely shown to damage the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. Although PD is generally considered an adult onset disease, it has been postulated that exposure to environmental contaminants or other(More)
Although much has been learned in the last few decades concerning the molecular mechanisms and pathways associated with the development of familial as well as sporadic Parkinson disease (PD), the precise mechanisms and specific proteins responsible for mediating these effects remain to be elucidated. Thus, the identification and biological evaluation of(More)
Exposure to environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine insecticides during critical periods of neurodevelopment has been shown to be a major contributor to several neuropsychological deficits seen in children, adolescence, and adults. Although the neurobehavioral outcomes resulting from exposure to these compounds are known the neurotransmitter(More)