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Identifying traits that affect rates of speciation and extinction and, hence, explain differences in species diversity among clades is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Detecting such traits is especially difficult when they undergo frequent transitions between states. Self-incompatibility, the ability of hermaphrodites to enforce outcrossing, is(More)
The gene SFB encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S-haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) reaction in Prunus (Rosaceae). To further characterize Prunus SFB, we cloned and sequenced four additional alleles from sweet cherry (P. avium), SFB 1 , SFB 2 , SFB 4 , and SFB 5.(More)
Loss of complex characters is thought to be irreversible (Dollo's law). However, hypotheses of irreversible evolution are remarkably difficult to test, especially when character transitions are frequent. In such cases, inference of ancestral states, in the absence of fossil evidence, is uncertain and represents the single greatest constraint for(More)
Steep clines in ecologically important traits may be caused by divergent natural selection. However, processes that do not necessarily invoke ongoing selection, such as secondary contact or restricted gene flow, can also cause patterns of phenotypic differentiation over short spatial scales. Distinguishing among all possible scenarios is difficult, but an(More)
Many plants have a genetically determined self-incompatibility system in which the rejection of self pollen grains is controlled by alleles of an S locus. A common feature of these S loci is that separate pollen- and style-expressed genes (pollen S and style S, respectively) determine S allele identity. The long-held view has been that pollen S and style S(More)
Balancing selection preserves variation at the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) of flowering plants for tens of millions of years, making it possible to detect demographic events that occurred prior to the origin of extant species. In contrast to other Solanaceae examined, SI species in the sister genera Physalis and Witheringia share restricted(More)
Low sequence divergence within functional alleles is predicted for the self-incompatibility locus because of strong negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, sequence variation within functional alleles is essential for current models of the evolution of new mating types. We genotyped the stylar self-incompatibility RNase of 20 Sorbus aucuparia(More)
BACKGROUND Papaver rhoeas possesses a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system not homologous to any other SI mechanism characterized at the molecular level. Four previously published full length stigmatic S-alleles from the genus Papaver exhibited remarkable sequence divergence, but these studies failed to amplify additional S-alleles despite crossing(More)
We tested whether selection by pollinators could explain the parapatric distribution of coastal red- and inland yellow-flowered races of Mimulus aurantiacus (Phrymaceae) by examining visitation to natural and experimental populations. As a first step in evaluating whether indirect selection might explain floral divergence, we also tested for local(More)