Joshua I Hardt

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 Liver microsomes are a frequently used probe to investigate the phase I metabolism of xenobiotics in vitro. Structures containing nucleophilic heteroatoms are possible substrates for cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO). Both enzymes are located in the endoplasmatic reticulum of hepatocytes and both need oxygen and(More)
Here we report a method to determine superoxide scavenging efficiency, using kinetic analysis of cytochrome c reduction and an automated UV/vis microtiter plate reader. Superoxide (O(2)(-&z. rad;)) was generated by xanthine oxidase metabolism of hypoxanthine, and quantified by following reduction of cytochrome c by O(2)(-&z. rad;) as increasing absorbance(More)
Superoxide, a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, may contribute to tissue injury in many types of human disease. Here we show that a tris-malonic acid derivative of the fullerene C60 molecule (C3) is capable of removing the biologically important superoxide radical with a rate constant (k(C3)) of 2 x 10(6) mol(-1) s(-1), approximately(More)
Superoxide radical anion is a biologically important oxidant that has been linked to tissue injury and inflammation in several diseases. Here we carried out a structure-activity study on six different carboxyfullerene superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics with distinct electronic and biophysical characteristics. Neurotoxicity via N-methyl-D-aspartate(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that also occurs in a few non-neuronal cell types, where it may serve as a paracrine modulator. GABA is biosynthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and from putrescine via diamine oxidase (DAO). GAD is demonstrable in several GABA-positive cell types but is undetectable in the(More)
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