Joshua Heinemann

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Arsenic ranks first on the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund List of Hazardous Substances. Its mobility and toxicity depend upon chemical speciation, which is significantly driven by microbial redox transformations. Genome sequence-enabled surveys reveal that in many microorganisms genes essential to arsenite (AsIII) oxidation are located(More)
To avoid molecular damage of biomolecules due to oxidation, all cells have evolved constitutive and responsive systems to mitigate and repair chemical modifications. Archaea have adapted to some of the most extreme environments known to support life, including highly oxidizing conditions. However, in comparison to bacteria and eukaryotes, relatively little(More)
The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. This makes archaeal virus-host systems of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the advantageous position for(More)
Ixodes didelphilis Fonseca & Aragão was described in Brazil in 1952 as a new tick species that differed from Ixodes loricatus Neumann by the spiracular plate pattern. We have reared four tick colonies from different geographic areas in the laboratory that were started from single engorged females originally identified as I. didelphidis (BMG, colony ) and I.(More)
One of the outstanding questions in biology today is the origin of viruses. We have discovered a protein in the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus while following proteome regulation during viral infection that led to the discovery of a fossil provirus. Characterization of the wild type and recombinant protein revealed that it assembled into(More)
Where there is life, there are viruses. The impact of viruses on evolution, global nutrient cycling, and disease has driven research on their cellular and molecular biology. Knowledge exists for a wide range of viruses; however, a major exception are viruses with archaeal hosts. Archaeal virus-host systems are of great interest because they have(More)
The real-time quantification of changes in intracellular metabolic activities has the potential to vastly improve upon traditional transcriptomics and metabolomics assays for the prediction of current and future cellular phenotypes. This is in part because intracellular processes reveal themselves as specific temporal patterns of variation in metabolite(More)
This article summarizes basic principles and recent progress in the field of cascade-branched polymers. Methods for the preparation of macromolecules with hyperbranched structures are presented and compared concerning the extent of control over molecular weights and polydispersity. Step-growth and recently developed chain-growth strategies as well as enzyme(More)
BACKGROUND The current paradigm of intracellular redox chemistry maintains that cells establish a reducing environment maintained by a pool of small molecule and protein thiol to protect against oxidative damage. This strategy is conserved in mesophilic organisms from all domains of life, but has been confounded in thermophilic organisms where evidence(More)
Identifying biomarkers that are indicative of a phenotypic state is difficult because of the amount of natural variability which exists in any population. While there are many different algorithms to select biomarkers, previous investigation shows the sensitivity and flexibility of support vector machines (SVM) make them an attractive candidate. Here we(More)