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In mammals, puberty onset typically occurs earlier in females than in males, but the explanation for sexual differentiation in the tempo of pubertal development is unknown. Puberty in both sexes is a brain-dependent phenomenon and involves alterations in the sensitivity of neuronal circuits to gonadal steroid feedback as well as gonadal hormone-independent(More)
Arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3, encoded by the Rfrp gene) is the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone and can inhibit GnRH neuronal activity and LH release. However, the development and regulation of the RFRP-3 system in both sexes is poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we examined changes in(More)
Kisspeptin (encoded by the Kiss1 gene) is an important regulator of reproduction. In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular/ periventricular continuum, where it is regulated by sex steroids. However, the distribution, regulation, and functional significance of neural kisspeptin outside(More)
Nonsteroidal signaling via the androgen receptor (AR) plays an im-portant role in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Previously, we have reported that the pleiotropic cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6, inhibited dihydrotestosterone-mediated expression of prostate-specific antigen in LNCaP cells (Jia et al., Mol Can Res 2003;1:385-92). In the present study, we(More)
Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction and is synthesized in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular and arcuate nuclei. Kiss1 is also expressed at lower levels in the medial amygdala (MeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), but the regulation and function of Kiss1 there is poorly understood. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)(More)
Age-related LH surge dysfunction in middle-aged rats is characterized, in part, by reduced responsiveness to estradiol (E2)-positive feedback and reduced hypothalamic kisspeptin neurotransmission. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus project to hypothalamic regions that house kisspeptin neurons. Additionally, middle-age(More)
Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction. In rodents, one Kiss1 population resides in the hypothalamic anterior ventral periventricular nucleus and neighboring rostral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN). AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic (greater in females), yet the mechanisms regulating their development and sexual differentiation(More)
The effect of deliberate circuit mismatches in an LC VCO is investigated and it is shown that such mismatches can significantly reduce the oscillation start-up time. An analysis is presented that shows that the presence of mismatches results in a common-mode disturbance simultaneous with the turn-on of the tail current. The use of this technique is applied(More)
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a treatable cause of autoimmune encephalitis. It remains unclear if the natural history of this disease is altered by choice of acute therapy or the employment of chronic immunotherapy. Chart review was undertaken for pediatric patients diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Data(More)
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