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The formation of reactive oxygen species by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system is thought to be due to autoxidation of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and the nonproductive decay of oxygen-bound cytochrome P450 intermediates. To characterize this process in recombinant microsomal enzymes, we used a highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide assay based on(More)
Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most severe consequences of exposure to paraquat, an herbicide that causes rapid alveolar inflammation and epithelial cell damage. Paraquat is known to induce toxicity in cells by stimulating oxygen utilization via redox cycling and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the enzymatic activity mediating(More)
BACKGROUND Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogue exendin-4 (Ex-4) enhance glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and activate various signaling pathways in pancreatic beta-cells, in particular cAMP, Ca(2+) and protein kinase-B (PKB/Akt). In many cells these signals activate intermediary metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the acute(More)
M-theory is believed to be described in various dimensions by large N field theories. It has been further conjectured that at finite N , these theories describe the discrete light cone quantization (DLCQ) of M theory. Even at low energies, this is not necessarily the same thing as the DLCQ of supergravity. It is believed that this is only the case for(More)
Lipid bodies are inducible lipid domains abundantly present in leukocytes engaged in inflammation. They are rich in esterified arachidonate and are also potential sites for eicosanoid-forming enzyme localization. It is therefore of interest to know whether arachidonate-releasing cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) localizes at lipid bodies. Here, we present(More)
Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical weapon first employed during World War I, targets the skin, eyes, and lung. It remains a significant military and civilian threat. The characteristic response of human skin to SM involves erythema of delayed onset, followed by edema with inflammatory cell infiltration, the appearance of large blisters in the affected area,(More)
Diquat and paraquat are nonspecific defoliants that induce toxicity in many organs including the lung, liver, kidney, and brain. This toxicity is thought to be due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important pathway leading to ROS production by these compounds is redox cycling. In this study, diquat and paraquat redox cycling was(More)
Chemicals known as peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are the subject of intense study because of their ability to cause hepatocellular carcinoma in laboratory rodents. These chemicals act through a family of proteins termed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), in particular PPARalpha. It has become increasingly apparent that the role of the(More)