Joshua D. Amos

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Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require elimination of postnatal transmission of HIV-1 while maintaining the nutritional and immunologic benefits of breastfeeding for infants in developing regions. Maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis can reduce postnatal HIV-1 transmission, yet toxicities and the development of drug-resistant viral strains may(More)
BACKGROUND The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay(More)
BACKGROUND During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS To study(More)
The C3-V4 region is a major target of autologous neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 subtype C infection. We previously identified a Center for AIDS Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) participant, CAP88, who developed a potent neutralizing-antibody response within 3 months of infection that targeted an epitope in the C3 region of the HIV-1 envelope(More)
Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120(W6.1D)). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we(More)
The design of an effective vaccine to reduce the incidence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breastfeeding will require identification of protective immune responses that block postnatal virus acquisition. Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) sustain nonpathogenic infection and rarely transmit(More)
UNLABELLED The initial phases of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be critical for development of effective envelope (Env)-specific antibodies capable of impeding the establishment of the latent pool of HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells, preventing virus-induced immune hyperactivation to limit disease progression and blocking(More)
Tenascin-C (TNC) is a newly identified innate HIV-1-neutralizing protein present in breast milk, yet its presence and potential HIV-inhibitory function in other mucosal fluids is unknown. In this study, we identified TNC as a component of semen and cervical fluid of HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, although it is present at a significantly lower(More)
We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F)(More)
Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), African green monkeys (AGMs), rarely transmit SIV via breast-feeding. In order to examine the genetic diversity of breast milk SIV variants in this limited-transmission setting, we performed phylogenetic analysis on envelope sequences of milk and plasma SIV variants of AGMs. Low-diversity milk virus(More)