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Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of(More)
Libraries of 16S rRNA genes cloned from methanogenic oil degrading microcosms amended with North Sea crude oil and inoculated with estuarine sediment indicated that bacteria from the genera Smithella (Deltaproteobacteria, Syntrophaceace) and Marinobacter sp. (Gammaproteobacteria) were enriched during degradation. Growth yields and doubling times (36 days(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess changes in regional brain volumes associated with the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and the molecular correlates of these changes. METHODS We administered molecular, MRI, and neurocognitive tests to 36 male premutation carriers (ages 51 to 79), 25 affected and 11 unaffected with FXTAS, and to 21 control subjects(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely agreed that species are fundamental units of biology, but there is little agreement on a definition of species or on an operational criterion for delimiting species that is applicable to all organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We focus on asexual eukaryotes as the simplest case for investigating species and speciation. We(More)
We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current ν(e,μ,τ) (ν(e,μ,τ)) or charged-current ν(e)(More)
We present the results of time-integrated searches for astrophysical neutrino sources in both the northern and southern skies. Data were collected using the partially-completed IceCube detector in the 40-string configuration recorded maximum likelihood ratio method is used to search for astrophysical signals. The data sample contains 36,900 events: 14,121(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The proteasome inhibitor PS-519 blocks activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, a major mediator of inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that combination treatment of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rhtPA) and PS-519 extends the therapeutic window for treatment of stroke with rhtPA without increasing incidence of(More)