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Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is(More)
Riverine ecosystems, highly sensitive to climate change and human activities, are characterized by rapid environmental change to fluctuating water levels and siltation, causing stress on their biological components. We have little understanding of mechanisms by which riverine plant species have developed adaptive strategies to cope with stress in dynamic(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely agreed that species are fundamental units of biology, but there is little agreement on a definition of species or on an operational criterion for delimiting species that is applicable to all organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We focus on asexual eukaryotes as the simplest case for investigating species and speciation. We(More)
It is valuable to identify and catalog design patterns for reconfigurable computing. These design patterns are canonical solutions to common and recurring design challenges which arise in reconfigurable systems and applications. The catalog can form the basis for creating designs, for educating new designers, for understanding the needs of tools and(More)
CONSTANS (CO) is an important flowering-time gene in the photoperiodic flowering pathway of annual Arabidopsis thaliana in which overexpression of CO induces early flowering, whereas mutations in CO cause delayed flowering. The closest homologs of CO in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.) are CO1 and CO2. A previous report showed that the CO2/FLOWERING(More)
Rare earth filters are known to reduce radiation dose in radiological investigations. The present investigation used Er and Sm filters that were selected because of their chemical stability and ability to withstand prolonged exposure to the atmosphere. They were used in a comparison with a conventional aluminium filter in a range of paediatric radiological(More)
Allelic variants of the genes for chemokine receptors and their natural ligands, the chemokines, and cytokines can affect HIV-1 disease progression. This study investigates the level of expression of the CCR5-Delta32, CCR2b-641, RANTES In1.1C, SDF-1 3'A, IL-10-5'-592A and IL-4-589T alleles in two unique HIV-1 infected patient cohorts that represent the two(More)
The age related variation in magnesium and calcium content and mechanical properties of turkey tendon from ages 9–14 weeks has been studied. The results show that magnesium content decreases with age during this period and calcium content remains essentially constant. This is in accord with a previously proposed mechanism of calcification, namely, that the(More)