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The Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) nuclease can be efficiently targeted to genomic loci by means of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to enable genome editing. Here, we characterize SpCas9 targeting specificity in human cells to inform the selection of target sites and avoid off-target effects. Our study evaluates >700 guide RNA variants and SpCas9-induced(More)
Despite tremendous progress in understanding the nature of the immune system, the full diversity of an organism's antibody repertoire is unknown. We used high-throughput sequencing of the variable domain of the antibody heavy chain from 14 zebrafish to analyze VDJ usage and antibody sequence. Zebrafish were found to use between 50 and 86% of all possible(More)
The human antibody repertoire is one of the most important defenses against infectious disease, and the development of vaccines has enabled the conferral of targeted protection to specific pathogens. However, there are many challenges to measuring and analyzing the immunoglobulin sequence repertoire, including that each B cell's genome encodes a distinct(More)
Annual influenza vaccinations aim to protect against seasonal infections, and vaccine strain compositions are updated every year. This protection is based on antibodies that are produced by either newly activated or memory B cells recalled from previous encounters with influenza vaccination or infection. The extent to which the B-cell repertoire responds to(More)
It is thought that the adaptive immune system of immature organisms follows a more deterministic program of antibody creation than is found in adults. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the diversifying antibody repertoire in zebrafish over five developmental time points. We found that the immune system begins in a highly stereotyped state(More)
We describe a hierarchical multiscale computational approach based on molecular dynamics simulations, free energy-based molecular docking simulations, deterministic network-based kinetic modeling, and hybrid discrete/continuum stochastic dynamics protocols to study the dimer-mediated receptor activation characteristics of the Erb family receptors,(More)
High-throughput measurement of gene-expression and immune receptor repertoires have recently become powerful tools in the study of adaptive immune response. However, despite their now-widespread use, both tend to discard cell identity by treating cell populations in bulk, and therefore lose the correlation between genetic variability and gene-expression at(More)
Using a recently developed multiscale simulation methodology, we describe the equilibrium behaviour of bilayer membranes under the influence of curvature-inducing proteins using a linearized elastic free energy model. In particular, we describe how the cooperativity associated with a multitude of protein-membrane interactions and protein diffusion on a(More)
7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate inhibits protein synthesis in a fractionated, messenger-dependent, reticulocyte cell-free system. This compound also inhibits binding of histone mRNA to reticulocyte ribosomes as well as interaction of VSV mRNA and histone mRNA but not EMC virus RNA with purified initiation factor IF-M3. These studies provide evidence that(More)