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It is known that when hyperopic or myopic defocus is imposed on chick eyes by spectacle lenses, they rapidly compensate, becoming myopic or hyperopic respectively, by altering the depth of their vitreous chamber. Changes in two components--ocular length and choroidal thickness--underlie this rapid compensation. With monocular lens treatment, hyperopic(More)
Chicks deprived of form-vision in the lateral part of their visual fields become severely myopic largely because of elongation of the vitreous chamber. The myopia mostly affects the visually deprived nasal retina; the nondeprived temporal retina is unaffected. These changes occur most rapidly early in life, being evident then after only 3 days of visual(More)
The brain maintains the accuracy of saccadic eye movements by adjusting saccadic amplitude relative to the target distance (i.e., saccade gain) on the basis of the performance of recent saccades. If an experimenter surreptitiously moves the target backward during each saccade, thereby causing the eyes to land beyond their targets, saccades undergo a gradual(More)
Single unit recordings in the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) of the accessory optic system in chickens suggest that it has a role in vertical stabilizing eye movements. Cells have unusually large receptive fields and never respond to small stationary stimuli. They respond best to large richly patterned stimuli moving slowly (2–4 °/s) in vertical(More)
The chick eye is able to change its refractive state by as much as 7 D by pushing the retina forward or pulling it back; this is effected by changes in the thickness of the choroid, the vascular tissue behind the retina and pigment epithelium. Chick eyes first made myopic by wearing diffusers and then permitted unrestricted vision developed choroids several(More)
PURPOSE Myopia can be induced in chickens by having them wear either negative lenses (lens-compensation myopia [LCM]) or diffusers (form-deprivation myopia [FDM]), whereas positive lenses cause lens-compensation hyperopia (LCH). These three conditions were compared with respect to (i) their early time course and (ii) the effect of two manipulations of the(More)
During growth the vertebrate eye achieves a close match between the power of its optics and its axial length with the result that images are focused on the retina without accommodative effort (emmetropia). The possibility that vision is required for the regulation of eye growth was studied experimentally in chicks made myopic or hyperopic by different(More)
The choroid of the eye is primarily a vascular structure supplying the outer retina. It has several unusual features: It contains large membrane-lined lacunae, which, at least in birds, function as part of the lymphatic drainage of the eye and which can change their volume dramatically, thereby changing the thickness of the choroid as much as four-fold over(More)
1. The anatomical connections of the dorsolateral pontine nucleus (DLPN) implicate it in the production of smooth-pursuit eye movements. It receives inputs from cortical structures believed to be involved in visual motion processing (middle temporal cortex) or motion execution (posterior parietal cortex) and projects to the flocculus of the cerebellum,(More)