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Trans-acting siRNA form through a refined RNAi mechanism in plants. miRNA-guided cleavage triggers entry of precursor transcripts into an RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 pathway, and sets the register for phased tasiRNA formation by DICER-LIKE4. Here, we show that miR390-ARGONAUTE7 complexes function in distinct cleavage or noncleavage modes at two target(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs found in diverse eukaryotic lineages. In plants, a minority of annotated MIRNA gene families are conserved between plant families, while the majority are family- or species-specific, suggesting that most known MIRNA genes arose relatively recently in evolutionary time. Given the high proportion of young MIRNA(More)
RNA interference pathways can involve amplification of secondary siRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. In plants, RDR6-dependent secondary siRNAs arise from transcripts targeted by some microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, Arabidopsis thaliana secondary siRNAs from mRNA as well as trans-acting siRNAs are shown to be triggered through initial targeting by a(More)
In RNA-directed silencing pathways, ternary complexes result from small RNA-guided ARGONAUTE (AGO) associating with target transcripts. Target transcripts are often silenced through direct cleavage (slicing), destabilization through slicer-independent turnover mechanisms, and translational repression. Here, wild-type and active-site defective forms of(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transfer plasmid-encoded genes and virulence (Vir) proteins into plant cells. The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is stably inherited and expressed in plant cells, causing crown gall or hairy root disease. DNA transfer from A. tumefaciens into plant cells resembles plasmid conjugation; single-stranded DNA(More)
Transacting siRNA (tasiRNA) biogenesis in Arabidopsis is initiated by microRNA (miRNA) -guided cleavage of primary transcripts. In the case of TAS3 tasiRNA formation, ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7)-miR390 complexes interact with primary transcripts at two sites, resulting in recruitment of RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 for dsRNA biosynthesis. An extensive screen for(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes cause transformed plant cells to overproduce auxin and cytokinin. Two oncogenes encode enzymes that convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (auxin): iaaM (tryptophan mono-oxygenase) and iaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase). A third oncogene (ipt) encodes AMP isopentenyl transferase, which produces cytokinin(More)
De novo DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana is catalyzed by the methyltransferase DRM2, a homolog of the mammalian de novo methyltransferase DNMT3. DRM2 is targeted to DNA by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in a process known as RNA-directed DNA Methylation (RdDM). While several components of the RdDM pathway are known, a functional understanding of the(More)
Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are used for small RNA-based, specific gene silencing or knockdown in plants. Current methods to generate amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA constructs are not well adapted for cost-effective, large-scale production or for multiplexing to specifically suppress multiple(More)
In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora(More)