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Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may(More)
Low-order equal-time statistics of a barotropic flow on a rotating sphere are investigated. The flow is driven by linear relaxation toward an unstable zonal jet. For relatively short relaxation times, the flow is dominated by critical-layer waves. For sufficiently long relaxation times, the flow is turbulent. Statistics obtained from a second-order cumulant(More)
Unsafely or maliciously coded extensions allow an attacker to run their own code in the victim's browser with elevated privileges. This gives the attacker a large amount of control over not only the browser but the underlying machine as well. The topic of securing desktop browsers from such threats has been well studied but mitigating the same danger(More)
We develop and describe new approaches to the problem of interacting Fermions in spatial dimensions greater than one. These approaches are based on generalizations of powerful tools previously applied to problems in one spatial dimension. We begin with a review of one-dimensional interacting Fermions. We then introduce a simplified model in two spatial(More)
We investigate the Fokker-Planck description of the equal-time statistics of the three-dimensional Lorenz attractor with additive white noise. The invariant measure is found by computing the zero (or null) mode of the linear Fokker-Planck operator as a problem of sparse linear algebra. Two variants are studied: a self-adjoint construction of the linear(More)
As the assigners of credit ratings and subordination levels, rating agencies play a critical role in the whole CMBS market. In an effort to investigate their influence in this market, we analyzed the business models, industry structure and rating methodologies of rating agencies. In addition, their functions in the capital markets and CMBS markets are(More)
Bosonization of degenerate fermions yields insight both into Landau Fermi liquids, and into non-Fermi liquids. We begin our review with a pedagogical introduction to bosonization, emphasizing its applicability in spatial dimensions greater than one. After a brief historical overview, we present the essentials of the method. Well known results of Landau(More)
Improvements both in the quality and in the variety of experiments on high-temperature superconductors have yielded new insights into the microscopic origins of pairing. A number of competing theories have already been ruled out. Some of the more promising descriptions – gauge theories, coupled-chains, nesting instabilities, nodal liquids, and stripes –(More)
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