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Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may(More)
Low-order equal-time statistics of a barotropic flow on a rotating sphere are investigated. The flow is driven by linear relaxation toward an unstable zonal jet. For relatively short relaxation times, the flow is dominated by critical-layer waves. For sufficiently long relaxation times, the flow is turbulent. Statistics obtained from a second-order cumulant(More)
We present direct statistical simulation of jet formation on a β plane, solving for the statistics of a fluid flow via an expansion in cumulants. Here we compare an expansion truncated at second order (CE2) to statistics accumulated by direct numerical simulations. We show that, for jets near equilibrium, CE2 is capable of reproducing the jet structure(More)
Alternative stable-state theory (ASS) is widely accepted as explaining landscape-level vegetation dynamics, such as switches between forest and grassland. This theory argues that webs of feedbacks stabilise vegetation composition and structure, and that abrupt state shifts can occur if stabilising feedbacks are weakened. However, it is difficult to identify(More)
Unsafely or maliciously coded extensions allow an attacker to run their own code in the victim's browser with elevated privileges. This gives the attacker a large amount of control over not only the browser but the underlying machine as well. The topic of securing desktop browsers from such threats has been well studied but mitigating the same danger(More)
The density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm is extended to treat time-dependent problems. The method provides a systematic and robust tool to explore out-of-equilibrium phenomena in quantum many-body systems. We illustrate the method by showing that attractive interactions enhance the tunneling current between two Luttinger liquids, whereas repulsive(More)
Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations(More)
We develop and describe new approaches to the problem of interacting Fermions in spatial dimensions greater than one. These approaches are based on generalizations of powerful tools previously applied to problems in one spatial dimension. We begin with a review of one-dimensional interacting Fermions. We then introduce a simplified model in two spatial(More)
Neutralization probabilities are presented for hyperthermal energy Na+ ions scattered from a Cu(001) crystal as a function of surface temperature and scattered velocity. A large enhancement in neutralization is observed as the temperature is increased. Velocity-dependent charge transfer regimes are probed by varying the incident energy, with the most(More)