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Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) sense viral and microbial DNA through endosomal Toll-like receptors to produce type 1 interferons. pDCs do not normally respond to self-DNA, but this restriction seems to break down in human autoimmune disease by an as yet poorly understood mechanism. Here we identify the antimicrobial peptide LL37 (also known as CAMP) as(More)
Raised serum levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha have been observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and these levels are correlated with both disease activity and severity. The origin of this IFN-alpha is still unclear, but increasing evidence suggests the critical involvement of activated plasmacytoid predendritic cells (PDCs). In SLE(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a severe and incurable autoimmune disease characterized by chronic activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and production of autoantibodies against nuclear self-antigens by hyperreactive B cells. Neutrophils are also implicated in disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here, we(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) responses to extracellular self-DNA and self-RNA are prevented by the endosomal seclusion of nucleic acid-recognizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In psoriasis, however, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) sense self-DNA that is transported to endosomal TLR9 upon forming a complex with the antimicrobial peptide LL37. Whether LL37 also interacts with(More)
Although there is evidence for distinct roles of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs [mDCs]) and plasmacytoid pre-DCs (pDCs) in regulating T cell-mediated adaptive immunity, the concept of functional DC subsets has been questioned because of the lack of a molecular mechanism to explain these differences. In this study, we provide direct evidence that maturing mDCs(More)
The intracellular location of nucleic acid sensors prevents recognition of extracellular self-DNA released by dying cells. However, on forming a complex with the endogenous antimicrobial peptide LL37, extracellular DNA is transported into endosomal compartments of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, leading to activation of Toll-like receptor-9 and induction of(More)
CpG-C are a novel class of CpG motif-containing immunostimulatory sequences (ISS) that includes both a 5'-TCG element and a CpG-containing palindrome. CpG-C drive all known ISS activities and, in particular, are potent enhancers of IFN-alpha from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs). In our examination of CpG-C sequence requirements, we determined that(More)
Recent reports have identified two major classes of CpG motif-containing oligodeoxynucleotide immunostimulatory sequences (ISS): uniformly modified phosphorothioate (PS) oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), which initiate B cell functions but poorly activate dendritic cells (DCs) to make interferon (IFN)-alpha, and chimeric PS/phosphodiester (PO) ODNs(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized type I interferon (IFN-α/β)-producing cells that express intracellular toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 and recognize viral nucleic acids in the context of infections. We show that pDCs also have the ability to sense host-derived nucleic acids released in common skin wounds. pDCs were found to rapidly(More)
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth most common cause of cancer death among women. Despite its immunogenicity, effective antitumor responses are limited, due, in part, to the presence of forkhead box protein 3-positive (Foxp3(+)) T regulatory (Treg) cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, the mechanisms that regulate the accumulation and the(More)