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Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) sense viral and microbial DNA through endosomal Toll-like receptors to produce type 1 interferons. pDCs do not normally respond to self-DNA, but this restriction seems to break down in human autoimmune disease by an as yet poorly understood mechanism. Here we identify the antimicrobial peptide LL37 (also known as CAMP) as(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) responses to extracellular self-DNA and self-RNA are prevented by the endosomal seclusion of nucleic acid-recognizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In psoriasis, however, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) sense self-DNA that is transported to endosomal TLR9 upon forming a complex with the antimicrobial peptide LL37. Whether LL37 also interacts with(More)
Although there is evidence for distinct roles of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs [mDCs]) and plasmacytoid pre-DCs (pDCs) in regulating T cell-mediated adaptive immunity, the concept of functional DC subsets has been questioned because of the lack of a molecular mechanism to explain these differences. In this study, we provide direct evidence that maturing mDCs(More)
Raised serum levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha have been observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and these levels are correlated with both disease activity and severity. The origin of this IFN-alpha is still unclear, but increasing evidence suggests the critical involvement of activated plasmacytoid predendritic cells (PDCs). In SLE(More)
Recent reports have identified two major classes of CpG motif-containing oligodeoxynucleotide immunostimulatory sequences (ISS): uniformly modified phosphorothioate (PS) oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), which initiate B cell functions but poorly activate dendritic cells (DCs) to make interferon (IFN)-alpha, and chimeric PS/phosphodiester (PO) ODNs(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized type I interferon (IFN-α/β)-producing cells that express intracellular toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 and recognize viral nucleic acids in the context of infections. We show that pDCs also have the ability to sense host-derived nucleic acids released in common skin wounds. pDCs were found to rapidly(More)
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing T helper cells (T(H)-17) comprise a newly recognized T cell subset with an emerging role in adaptive immunity to a variety of fungi. Whether different airborne fungi trigger a common signaling pathway for T(H)-17 induction, and whether this ability is related to the inherent pathogenic behavior of each fungus is currently(More)
Recent reports have identified two major classes of CpG motif-containing oligodeoxynu-cleotide immunostimulatory sequences (ISS): uniformly modified phosphorothioate (PS) oligode-oxyribonucleotides (ODNs), which initiate B cell functions but poorly activate dendritic cells (DCs) to make interferon (IFN)-␣, and chimeric PS/phos-phodiester (PO) ODNs(More)
Monocytes rapidly infiltrate inflamed tissues and differentiate into CD209(+) inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) that promote robust immunity or, if unregulated, inflammatory disease. Previous studies in experimental animal models indicate that inflammatory DC depletion through systemic elimination of their monocyte precursors with clodronate-loaded(More)
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