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Retinal guanylate cyclases 1 and 2 (GC1 and GC2) are responsible for synthesis of cyclic GMP in rods and cones, but their individual contributions to phototransduction are unknown. We report here that the deletion of both GC1 and GC2 rendered rod and cone photoreceptors nonfunctional and unstable. In the rod outer segments of GC double knock-out mice,(More)
Guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) and guanylate cyclase-inhibitory protein (GCIP) are calmodulin-related Ca2+-binding proteins expressed in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. GCAP1 activates photoreceptor guanylate cyclase 1 (GC1) at low free [Ca2+] (<50 nM, in the light), but inhibits it at physiological high [Ca2+] (1 microM, in the dark). GCIP,(More)
An isoform of RGS9 was recently identified as the GTPase activating protein in bovine and mouse rod and cone photoreceptors. To explore the potential role of the RGS9 gene in human retinal disease, we determined its exon/intron arrangement, and investigated its expression in human retina. The results show that the gene, located on 17q24, consists of 19(More)
The retinoid cycle is a recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rhodopsin and cone pigments. Photoreceptor-specific retinol dehydrogenase (prRDH) catalyzes reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol and is thought to be a key enzyme in the retinoid cycle. We disrupted mouse prRDH (human gene symbol RDH8) gene expression(More)
PURPOSE To identify gene arrangement, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern of mouse guanylate cyclase activating proteins GCAP1 and GCAP2, retina-specific Ca2+-binding proteins, and photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activators. METHODS The GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes were cloned from genomic libraries and sequenced. The chromosomal localization of the(More)
The standard approach for constructing a large-stretch pseudo-random generator given a one-way permutation or given a smaller-stretch pseudo-random generator involves repeatedly composing the given primitive with itself. In this paper, we consider whether this approach is necessary , that is, whether there are constructions that do not involve composition.(More)
A modification of the standard electrodiagnostic test was developed in an effort to provide a more sensitive electrodiagnostic evaluation in radial tunnel syndrome. Radial motor nerve latency recordings were obtained in 3 different forearm positions: neutral, passive supination, and passive pronation. The maximal difference in these recordings, the(More)
In this controlled prospective study, 22 consecutive surgical candidates with clinically diagnosed CTS and negative findings on median nerve-sensory and motor-conduction velocity tests in both hands were reexamined with a protocol incorporating 5 specific positions of the wrist. Four of the 5 positions represented maximum physiologic ranges of motion for(More)
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