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The marsupial newborn is immature and the mother has the capacity to alter milk composition significantly during lactation, presumably to meet the nutritional requirements of the developing young. Furthermore, macropodid marsupials may practice asynchronous concurrent lactation (ACL)7whereby the mother provides milk which differs in all the major components(More)
Esterase activities associated with organophosphate insecticide resistance in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, are compared with similar activities in other Diptera. The enzymes making the major contribution to methyl butyrate hydrolysis (“ali-esterase”) in L. cuprina, M. domestica, and D. melanogaster comigrate during electrophoresis. The(More)
Specific changes in milk composition during lactation in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) were correlated with the ages of the developing pouch young (PY). The present experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that the sucking pattern of the PY determines the course of mammary development in the tammar wallaby. To test this hypothesis, groups of(More)
Mammary gland growth and morphogenesis are regulated by interactions between hormones as much as by their individual actions. The effect of these interactions on the mammary gland phenotype in species other than rodents is relatively undefined. We investigated the individual and combined effects of estrogen (E), progestin (P), and prolactin (PRL) on mammary(More)
Angiogenesis is a dynamic process regulated by both local and systemic factors. Among these is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent effector of angiogenesis and vascular permeability. Previously we showed that VEGF is temporally and spatially regulated in the mouse mammary gland during development and lactation. Given the functions of(More)
The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation.(More)
Lifetime breast cancer risk reflects an unresolved combination of early life factors including diet, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and age at first menses. In parallel, the onset of allometric growth by the mammary glands around puberty is widely held to be estrogen (E)-dependent. Here we report that several physiological changes associated(More)
From its embryonic origins, the mammary gland in females undergoes a course of ductal development that supports the establishment of alveolar structures during pregnancy prior to the onset of lactogenesis. This development includes multiple stages of proliferation and morphogenesis that are largely directed by concurrent alterations in key hormones and(More)
Ductal branching within the mammary gland is stimulated by prolactin (PRL) and progesterone (P) acting through their receptors (PRLR and PR). Analysis of mammary gland PRLR expression revealed increasing expression of the long form (L-PRLR) and two of the three short forms (S1- and S3-PRLR) during puberty that became maximal late in pubescence and early(More)
Endocrine and autocrine prolactin (PRL) exerts effects on normal breast and breast cancer cells, and high serum PRL is a poor prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. Here we tested the hypothesis that short isoforms of the PRL receptor (PRLR) in human tissue regulate the actions of PRL in cancer. Using 3' RACE we isolated five splice variants of the human(More)