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BACKGROUND Neonatal deaths in developing countries make the largest contribution to global mortality in children younger than 5 years. 90% of deliveries in the poorest quintile of households happen at home. We postulated that a community-based participatory intervention could significantly reduce neonatal mortality rates. METHODS We pair-matched 42(More)
BACKGROUND Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups might improve birth outcomes in poor rural communities. We therefore assessed this approach in a largely tribal and rural population in three districts in eastern India. METHODS From 36 clusters in Jharkhand and Orissa, with an estimated population of 228 186, we assigned 18 clusters(More)
BACKGROUND To track donor assistance to maternal, newborn, and child health-related activities is necessary to assess progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 and to foster donor accountability. Our aim was to analyse aid flows to maternal, newborn, and child health for 2005 and 2006 and trends between 2003 and 2006. METHODS We analysed and(More)
BACKGROUND Timely reliable data on aid flows to maternal, newborn, and child health are essential for assessing the adequacy of current levels of funding, and to promote accountability among donors for attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for child and maternal health. We provide global estimates of official development assistance (ODA) to(More)
We did a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory intervention with women's groups to improve birth outcomes in rural Nepal. The average provider cost of the women's group intervention was US0.75 dollars per person per year (0.90 dollars with health-service strengthening) in a population of 86,704. The(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of a large-scale urban hygiene promotion programme in terms of reducing the incidence of childhood diarrhoeal disease in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. METHODS Total and incremental costs of the programme were estimated retrospectively from the perspectives of the provider, from the households who(More)
A household survey was undertaken in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, to estimate the costs incurred during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period for women delivering at home and in a health facility. Those interviewed included 121 women who delivered at home, 120 who delivered in an ICDDR,B basic obstetric care (BEOC) facility, 27 who delivered(More)
BACKGROUND The use of supply-side incentives to increase health service utilisation and enhance service quality is gaining momentum in many low- and middle-income countries. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the impact of such schemes, their cost-effectiveness, and the process of implementation and potential unintended consequences in these(More)
BACKGROUND The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF), a compulsory formal sector scheme took over the management of the Community Health Fund (CHF), a voluntary informal sector scheme, in 2009. This study assesses the origins of the reform, its effect on management and reporting structures, financial flow adequacy, reform communication and acceptability to(More)
Childbirth can be a costly process for households in countries where financing arrangements are fragmented and fail to provide universal coverage. Seeking obstetric care results in immediate financial outlays as well as longer term economic and social consequences in terms of debt repayment and potential ongoing complications. This chapter reviews the(More)