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Many ad hoc routing protocols are based on some variant of flooding. Despite various optimizations of flooding, many routing messages are propagated unnecessarily. We propose a gossiping-based approach, where each node forwards a message with some probability, to reduce the overhead of the routing protocols. Gossiping exhibits bimodal behavior in… (More)
We propose a new definition of actual causes, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. We show that the definition yields a plausible and elegant account of causation that handles well examples which have caused problems for other definitions and resolves major difficulties in the traditional account.
Several new logics for belief and knowledge are introduced and studied, all of which have the property that agents are not logically omniscient. In particular, in these logics, the set of beliefs of an agent does not necessarily contain all valid formulas. Thus, these logics are more suitable than traditional logics for modelling beliefs of humans (or… (More)
We consider two approaches to giving semantics to first order logics of probability. The first approach puts a probability on the domain, and is appropriate for giving semantics to formulas involving statistical information such as "The probability that a (typical) bird flies is greater than .9." The second approach puts a probability on possible worlds,… (More)
Uncertainty is a fundamental and unavoidable feature of daily life; in order to deal with uncertaintly intelligently, we need to be able to represent it and reason about it. In this book, Joseph Halpern examines formal...
In certain areas of artificial intelligence there is need to represent continuous change and to make statements that are interpreted with respect to time intervals rather than time points. To this end, a modal temporal loglc based on time intervals is developed, a logic that can be viewed as a generalization of point-based modal temporal logic. Related… (More)
The differences between and appropriateness of branching versus linear time temporal logic for reasoning about concurrent programs are studied. These issues have been previously considered by Lamport. To facilitate a careful examination of these issues, a language, CTL<supscrpt>*</supscrpt>, in which a universal or existential path quantifier can prefix an… (More)
We consider the problems of secret sharing and multiparty computation, assuming that agents prefer to get the secret (resp., function value) to not getting it, and secondarily, prefer that as few as possible of the other agents get it. We show that, under these assumptions, neither secret sharing nor multiparty function computation is possible using a… (More)
—We propose a protocol that, given a communication network, computes a subnetwork such that, for every pair (u, v) of nodes connected in the original network, there is a a minimum-energy path between u and v in the subnetwork (where a minimum-energy path is one that allows messages to be transmitted with a minimum use of energy). The network computed by our… (More)
We study <i>k-resilient Nash equilibria</i>, joint strategies where no member of a coalition <i>C</i> of size up to <i>k</i> can do better, even if the whole coalition defects. We show that such <i>k</i>-resilient Nash equilibria exist for secret sharing and multiparty computation, provided that players prefer to get the information than not to get it. Our… (More)