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DNA methylation is implicated in mammalian brain development and plasticity underlying learning and memory. We report the genome-wide composition, patterning, cell specificity, and dynamics of DNA methylation at single-base resolution in human and mouse frontal cortex throughout their lifespan. Widespread methylome reconfiguration occurs during fetal to(More)
Converging lines of evidence implicate the beta-amyloid peptide (Ass) as causative in Alzheimer's disease. We describe a novel class of compounds that reduce A beta production by functionally inhibiting gamma-secretase, the activity responsible for the carboxy-terminal cleavage required for A beta production. These molecules are active in both 293 HEK cells(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that(More)
Positron emission tomography of cerebral glucose metabolism in adult human subjects was used to investigate amygdaloid complex (AC) activity associated with the storage of long-term memory for emotionally arousing events. Subjects viewed two videos (one in each of two separate positron emission tomography sessions, separated by 3-7 days) consisting either(More)
This study is the first report on the effects of total sleep deprivation (about 32 h) on regional cerebral glucose metabolism during wakefulness in man, using positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 deoxyglucose (FDG). Sleep deprivation leads to a significant reorganization of regional cerebral metabolic activity, with relative decreases in the(More)
Seventeen patients with major affective disorder completed a 10-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline. Patients underwent positron emission tomography with 18F-deoxyglucose and were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at baseline and 10 weeks after treatment with sertraline or placebo. The(More)
Limb development in Drosophila depends on subdivision of the limb primordia into functional units called compartments. Cell interactions across compartment boundaries establish pattern-organizing centres that control growth and specify cell fates along the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes of the limbs. AP subdivision of the disc primordia is(More)
Sterol regulatory element 1 (SRE-1), a decamer (5'-ATC-ACCCCAC-3') flanking the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, activates transcription in sterol-depleted cells and is silenced by sterols. We report the cDNA cloning of human SREBP-1, a protein that binds SRE-1, activates transcription, and thereby mediates the final regulatory step in LDL(More)
Owing to the risk of insertional mutagenesis, viral transduction has been increasingly replaced by nonviral methods to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We report the use of 'minicircle' DNA, a vector type that is free of bacterial DNA and capable of high expression in cells, for this purpose. Here we use a single minicircle vector to(More)
In a 19-channel EEG photic driving paradigm the steady-state evoked response was studied in schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Seventeen drug-free patients and 15 normal controls were compared. Schizophrenic patients had lower EEG photic driving in the alpha range, particularly in the high alpha frequency band (p = 0.08). Topographic analysis(More)