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The elucidation of the human genome sequence has made it possible to identify genetic alterations in cancers in unprecedented detail. To begin a systematic analysis of such alterations, we determined the sequence of well-annotated human protein-coding genes in two common tumor types. Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed(More)
Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To catalog the genetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis, we isolated DNA from 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumors and determined the sequences of the genes in the Reference Sequence database in these samples. Based on analysis of exons representing 20,857(More)
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor (RII) is a colon cancer suppressor gene that is inactivated by mutation in 90% of human colon cancers arising via the microsatellite instability (MSI) pathway of carcinogenesis. To determine the pathophysiological consequence of RII mutations, we have determined the timing of their onset among(More)
We show that the times separating the birth of benign, invasive, and metastatic tumor cells can be determined by analysis of the mutations they have in common. When combined with prior clinical observations, these analyses suggest the following general conclusions about colorectal tumorigenesis: (i) It takes approximately 17 years for a large benign tumor(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM The familial aggregation of Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, jointly termed familial Barrett's esophagus, may represent a complex genetic trait. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with these diseases who have familial Barrett's(More)
Genetic alterations occur during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colon cancer formation and drive the initiation and progression of colon cancer formation. The aberrant methylation of genes is an alternate, epigenetic mechanism for silencing tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine on a global and gene-specific level(More)
To extend earlier observations of germline E-cadherin mutations in kindreds with an inherited susceptibility to diffuse gastric cancer, we searched for germline E-cadherin mutations in five further families affected predominantly by diffuse gastric cancer and one family with a history of diffuse gastric cancer and early-onset breast cancer. Heterozygous(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopically applied methylene blue selectively stains specialized columnar epithelium in Barrett's esophagus. METHODS The diagnostic yield and cost of cancer surveillance in patients with Barrett's esophagus using methylene blue-directed biopsies (MBDB) were compared with surveillance using a "jumbo" random biopsy technique in a prospective,(More)
BACKGROUND Increased DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration that is common in human cancers and is often associated with transcriptional silencing. Aberrantly methylated DNA has also been proposed as a potential tumor marker. However, genes such as vimentin, which are transcriptionally silent in normal epithelium, have not until now been considered as(More)
We identify a gene, SLC5A8, and show it is a candidate tumor suppressor gene whose silencing by aberrant methylation is a common and early event in human colon neoplasia. Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated as a component of an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes in human cancers. Using restriction landmark genome scanning, we performed a(More)