Joseph W. Chow

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OBJECTIVES SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) is an ongoing study to monitor worldwide antimicrobial resistance trends among aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections. This 2004 report summarizes the most recently completed annual data from SMART. METHODS During 2004,(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2002, the worldwide Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) has tracked resistance patterns among aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections. Escherichia coli has been by far the most frequently isolated species. METHODS Antimicrobial susceptibilities for(More)
BACKGROUND The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) was begun in 2002 to monitor international drug-resistance patterns among aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections. METHODS In 2002, 40 medical centers from 17 countries collected consecutive non-duplicate isolates from(More)
We evaluated the molecular relatedness of 47 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis collected from 15 Michigan hospitals from 1991 to 2000. There were 17 PFGE strain types for the 47 isolates. Ten of 15 hospitals demonstrated interhospital, and three of 15 intrahospital, dissemination of some isolates. Forty-two isolates (89.4%)(More)
In the 2004 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 14 centres from six countries in Asia-Pacific collected 1198 unique aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli from intra-abdominal infections for susceptibility testing to 12 antimicrobial agents. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82% of the total isolates. Escherichia coli was the(More)
Bowel colonization with resistant bacteria can develop in patients receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. We compared the impact of two antimicrobial regimens often used to treat intraabdominal infections on susceptibility patterns of bowel flora at the end of therapy. In a double-blind clinical trial, adults with complicated intraabdominal(More)
Aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferases are clinically important enzymes that cause high levels of resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics by the organisms that harbor them. These enzymes phosphorylate aminoglycosides, and the modified antibiotics show significant reduction in the binding ability to target the bacterial ribosome. This report presents a(More)
Directed evolution by random PCR mutagenesis of the gene for the aminoglycoside 2''-IIa phosphotransferase generated R92H/D268N and N196D/D268N mutant enzymes, resulting in elevated levels of resistance to amikacin and isepamicin but not to other aminoglycoside antibiotics. Increases in the activities of the mutant phosphotransferases for isepamicin are the(More)
The impact of different antimicrobial regimens for intra-abdominal infections on the frequency of bowel colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was examined in 2 randomized open-label trials of intra-abdominal infection comparing piperacillin-tazobactam or ceftriaxone/metronidazole with ertapenem. In these short-term studies, overall rates(More)
The potential virulence factors of enterococci include production of enterococcal surface protein (Esp), gelatinase, and hemolysin. Gelatinase- and hemolysin-producing strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been shown to be virulent in animal models of enterococcal infections. Esp production has been shown to enhance the persistence of E. faecalis in the(More)