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Inflammation causes the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), leading to the release of prostanoids, which sensitize peripheral nociceptor terminals and produce localized pain hypersensitivity. Peripheral inflammation also generates pain hypersensitivity in neighbouring uninjured tissue (secondary hyperalgesia), because of increased neuronal excitability(More)
Understanding the origin of myofibroblasts in kidney is of great interest because these cells are responsible for scar formation in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent studies suggest epithelial cells are an important source of myofibroblasts through a process described as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional blood and urine markers for the diagnosis of various renal diseases are insensitive and nonspecific. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein, with an immunoglobulin and mucin domain, whose expression is markedly up-regulated in the proximal tubule in the post-ischemic rat kidney. The ectodomain of KIM-1 is(More)
Ischemic kidney injury often occurs in the context of multiple organ failure and sepsis. Here, we review the major components of this dynamic process, which involves hemodynamic alterations, inflammation, and endothelial and epithelial cell injury, followed by repair that can be adaptive and restore epithelial integrity or maladaptive, leading to chronic(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are critical regulators of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis and can directly modify the composition of cellular membranes. PLA2 enzymes release fatty acids and lysophospholipids, including the precursor of platelet-activating factor, PAF, from phospholipids. Free fatty acids, eicosanoids, lysophospholipids and PAF are(More)
The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney(More)
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (ccpRCC) and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor (RAT) share morphologic similarities with clear cell (ccRCC) and papillary RCC (pRCC). It is a matter of controversy whether their morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features allow the definition of a separate renal carcinoma entity. The aim of our project was(More)
The MEK1 (MAP kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-responsive kinase) pathway has been implicated in cell growth and differentiation [Seger, R. & Krebs, E. G. (1995) FASEB J. 9, 726-735]. Here we show that the MEK/ERK pathway is activated during focal cerebral ischemia and may play a role in inducing damage. Treatment of mice 30 min before ischemia(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and devastating medical condition, but no widely accepted definition exists. A recent classification system by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (RIFLE) defines AKI largely by percentage increases in serum creatinine (SCr) over baseline. The Acute Kidney Injury Network defines the first stage by either an absolute(More)
Acute renal failure (ARF) as a consequence of ischemic injury is a common disease affecting 5% of the hospitalized population. Despite the fact that mortality from ARF is high, there has been little improvement in survival rates over the last 40 years. The pathogenesis of ARF may be related to substantial changes in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix(More)