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Inflammation causes the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), leading to the release of prostanoids, which sensitize peripheral nociceptor terminals and produce localized pain hypersensitivity. Peripheral inflammation also generates pain hypersensitivity in neighbouring uninjured tissue (secondary hyperalgesia), because of increased neuronal excitability(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are critical regulators of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis and can directly modify the composition of cellular membranes. PLA2 enzymes release fatty acids and lysophospholipids, including the precursor of platelet-activating factor, PAF, from phospholipids. Free fatty acids, eicosanoids, lysophospholipids and PAF are(More)
Kidney toxicity accounts for a significant percentage of morbidity and drug candidate failure. Serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been used to monitor kidney dysfunction for over a century but these markers are insensitive and non-specific. In multi-site preclinical rat toxicology studies the diagnostic performance of urinary kidney(More)
Neuronal expression of familial Alzheimer's disease-mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) and hAPP-derived amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides causes synaptic dysfunction, inflammation and abnormal cerebrovascular tone in transgenic mice. Fatty acids may be involved in these processes, but their contribution to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is(More)
Ion channels reside in a sea of phospholipids. During normal fluctuations in membrane potential and periods of modulation, lipids that directly associate with channel proteins influence gating by incompletely understood mechanisms. In one model, M(1)-muscarinic receptors (M(1)Rs) may inhibit both Ca(2+) (L- and N-) and K(+) (M-) currents by losing a(More)
without whose encouragement this project would not have been possible. We also thank the interviewees in industry, academia and the FDA who generously gave of their time to meet with us. Responsibility for any errors and opinions expressed herein rests solely with the authors. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agency is(More)
Kidney cells and tissues derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may enable organ regeneration, disease modeling and drug screening. We report an efficient, chemically defined protocol for differentiating hPSCs into multipotent nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) that can form nephron-like structures. By recapitulating metanephric kidney development(More)
We have identified a new putative transcription factor from the rat kidney, termed Kid-1 (for kidney, ischemia and developmentally regulated gene 1). Kid-1 belongs to the C2H2 class of zinc finger genes. Its mRNA accumulates with age in postnatal renal development and is detected predominantly in the kidney. Kid-1 mRNA levels decline after renal injury(More)
Vascular inflammation is a major contributor to the severity of acute kidney injury. In the context of vasospasm-independent reperfusion injury we studied the potential anti-inflammatory role of the Gα-related RGS protein, RGS4. Transgenic RGS4 mice were resistant to 25 min injury, although post-ischemic renal arteriolar diameter was equal to the wild type(More)
Brain phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has not been well characterized. Given the importance of this enzymatic activity for a variety of cellular functions in the brain, we characterized the subcellular distribution of PLA2 activity in gerbil brain and evaluated how PLA2 activity was altered by ischemia and reperfusion. Cytosolic, mitochondrial, and(More)