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In three experiments, we examined the effects of prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and the proportion of related primes and targets (relatedness proportion, or RP) on semantic priming when the prime was either named or was searched for a specific letter. In Experiment 1, with an RP of .50, priming occurred at SOAs of 240 and 840 msec when the(More)
An important characteristic of automatic processing is its uncontrollability. The Stroop phenomenon is regarded as a prototypical example of this characteristic of automatic processing, hence, the Stroop effect should not change when the percentages of color words versus neutral stimuli are manipulated to induce controlled processing. We found that Stroop(More)
The representation of negative numbers was explored during intentional processing (i.e., when participants performed a numerical comparison task) and during automatic processing (i.e., when participants performed a physical comparison task). Performance in both cases suggested that negative numbers were not represented as a whole but rather their polarity(More)
There is contradicting evidence as to whether irrelevant but significant emotional stimuli can be processed outside the focus of attention. In the current study, participants were asked to ignore emotional and neutral pictures while performing a competing task. In Experiment 1, orienting of attention to distracting pictures was manipulated via a peripheral(More)
Research in cognitive science has documented numerous phenomena that are approximated by linear relationships. In the domain of numerical cognition, the use of linear regression for estimating linear effects (e.g., distance and SNARC effects) became common following Fias, Brysbaert, Geypens, and d'Ydewalle's (1996) study on the SNARC effect. While their(More)
The semantic priming effect can be reduced or eliminated depending on how the prime word is processed. The experiments reported here investigate this prime task effect. Two experiments used identity and semantic priming tasks to determine whether the prime word is encoded at a lexical level under letter-search conditions. When the prime task was naming,(More)
In 2 experiments, participants were trained to perform magnitude decisions, that is, decide which of 2 arbitrary symbols in a pair represented a larger magnitude. The symbols corresponded to locations on an implicit linear scale. Training resulted in a Stroop-like size congruity effect when the participants had to decide which symbol in a pair was(More)
Studies have shown that task sets could be configured endogenously (i.e., on the basis of memory) according to an explicit sequence or exogenously according to a task cue. In two experiments, we examined whether an implicitly learned sequence could facilitate task set configuration without participants' intention. These experiments led to opposite(More)
In this article, the authors propose to characterize sequence learning in terms of automatic versus non-automatic processing and to apply this contrast independently to knowledge acquisition and retrieval. In several experiments of sequence learning, automaticity of both the acquisition and retrieval of the acquired knowledge was independently assessed. It(More)