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BAX and BAK are "multidomain" proapoptotic proteins that initiate mitochondrial dysfunction but also localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for BAX and BAK (DKO cells) were found to have a reduced resting concentration of calcium in the ER ([Ca2+]er) that results in decreased uptake of Ca2+ by mitochondria after(More)
Proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAK are required for the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction during apoptosis and for maintaining the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores necessary for Ca(2+)-dependent cell death. Conversely, antiapoptotic BCL-2 has been shown to decrease Ca(2+) concentration in the ER. We found that Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-)(More)
Apoptosis has an important role during development to regulate cell number. In differentiated cells, however, activation of autophagy has a critical role by enabling cells to remain functional following stress. In this study, we show that the antiapoptotic BCL-2 homologue MCL-1 has a key role in controlling both processes in a developmentally regulated(More)
The regulated clearance of mitochondria is a well recognized but poorly understood aspect of cellular homeostasis, and defects in this process have been linked to aging, degenerative diseases, and cancer. Mitochondria are recycled through an autophagy-related process, and reticulocytes, which completely eliminate their mitochondria during maturation,(More)
Mitochondria-associated ER membranes, or MAMs, define the sites of endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondria juxtaposition that control Ca(2+) flux between these organelles. We found that in a mouse model of the human lysosomal storage disease GM1-gangliosidosis, GM1-ganglioside accumulates in the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) fractions of MAMs,(More)
Regulated apoptosis is essential for both the development and the subsequent maintenance of the immune system. Interleukins, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15, heavily influence lymphocyte survival during the vulnerable stages of VDJ rearrangement and later in ensuring cellular homeostasis, but the genes specifically responsible for the development and(More)
Programmed cell death is essential for the development and maintenance of cellular homeostasis of the immune system. The Bcl-2 family of proteins comprises both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members. A subset of pro-apoptotic members, called 'BH3-only' proteins, share sequence homology only in the minimal death domain, designated the Bcl-2 homology 3(More)
Drug resistance remains a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment. A database of drug-associated gene expression profiles was screened for molecules whose profile overlapped with a gene expression signature of glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity/resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. The screen indicated that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin(More)
Cytokines affect a variety of cellular functions, including regulation of cell numbers by suppression of programmed cell death. Suppression of apoptosis requires receptor signalling through the activation of Janus kinases and the subsequent regulation of members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Here we demonstrate that a Bcl-2-family-related(More)
MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages, is also among the most highly amplified genes in cancer. Although MCL-1 is known to oppose cell death, precisely how it functions to promote survival of normal and malignant cells is poorly understood. Here, we report that different forms of MCL-1(More)