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BAX and BAK are "multidomain" proapoptotic proteins that initiate mitochondrial dysfunction but also localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for BAX and BAK (DKO cells) were found to have a reduced resting concentration of calcium in the ER ([Ca2+]er) that results in decreased uptake of Ca2+ by mitochondria after(More)
Apoptosis is important in controlling hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers. However, the specific BCL-2 family member(s) that regulate HSC homeostasis are not precisely defined. We tested myeloid leukemia-1 (MCL-1) as an attractive candidate that is highly expressed in HSCs and regulated by growth factor signals. Inducible deletion of Mcl-1 in mice(More)
Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related disorders, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The accumulation of mitochondria harboring mtDNA mutations in patients with these disorders suggests a failure of normal mitochondrial quality-control systems. The mtDNA-mutator mice acquire somatic mtDNA mutations(More)
Regulated apoptosis is essential for both the development and the subsequent maintenance of the immune system. Interleukins, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15, heavily influence lymphocyte survival during the vulnerable stages of VDJ rearrangement and later in ensuring cellular homeostasis, but the genes specifically responsible for the development and(More)
Cytokines affect a variety of cellular functions, including regulation of cell numbers by suppression of programmed cell death. Suppression of apoptosis requires receptor signalling through the activation of Janus kinases and the subsequent regulation of members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Here we demonstrate that a Bcl-2-family-related(More)
A central question in immunology is the origin of long-lived T cell memory that confers protection against recurrent infection. The differentiation of naïve T cell receptor transgenic CD8+ cells into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and memory CD8+ cells was studied. Memory CD8+ cells that were generated after strong antigenic stimulation were the(More)
Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) are anti-apoptotic proteins in the BCL-2 protein family often expressed in cancer. To compare the function of MCL-1 and BCL-2 in maintaining cancer survival, we constructed complementary mouse leukemia models based on Emu-Myc expression in which either BCL-2 or MCL-1 are(More)
UNLABELLED Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. It interacts with proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby inhibiting mitochondrial activation and induction of apoptosis. Mcl-1 is essential for embryonal development and the maintenance of B cells, T cells, and hematopoietic stem cells. We have recently(More)
Despite the importance of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, in the regulation of apoptosis, little is known regarding its role in nervous system development and injury-induced neuronal cell death. Because germline deletion of Mcl-1 results in peri-implantation lethality, we address the function of Mcl-1 in the nervous system using two different(More)
Generation and maintenance of protective immunological memory is the goal of vaccination programs. It has recently become clear that CD8+ memory T cells are derived directly from CTLs. The mechanisms underlying this transformation and the subsequent survival of memory cells are not completely understood. However, some effector molecules required by CTLs to(More)