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An analysis of annual energy flows in an arid tropical ecosystem inhabited by nomadic pastoralists provides insight into a subsistence life-style that has persisted in droughted environments for hundreds to thousands of years. Although a large fraction of the total energy consumed by the Ngisonyoka of Kenya followed a single pathway from plant to animal to(More)
Regulation of protein turnover is essential to the survival of eukaryotic cells. This important cellular process is partly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through posttranslational modification by the conjugation of ubiquitin chains to proteins targeted for degradation by proteasomes. The present study examined ubiquitin mRNA and protein(More)
A quantitative in situ hybridization analysis was used to investigate changes in levels of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of rats stimulated osmotically by giving 2% NaCl as drinking solution for 0 (control rats), 1, 4, and 14 days. The quantitation was autoradiographically accomplished by in situ hybridization with a(More)
Following cellular stress or tissue injury, the proteasome plays a critical role in protein degradation and signal transduction. The present study examined the beta-subunit expression of constitutive proteasomes (beta1, beta2, and beta5), immunoproteasomes (beta1i, beta2i, and beta5i) and the 11S proteasome activator, PA28alpha, in the rat CNS after(More)
The dopamine-producing neurons of the tuberoinfundibular region are known targets of estrogen and progesterone, and are of considerable neuroendocrine importance. To determine the anatomical distribution, and number of cells that contain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in the tuberoinfundibular region and other regions of the brain we carried out in situ(More)
Although the administration of progesterone has been shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanisms for this beneficial effect are still poorly understood. The present study examined the effects of progesterone on mRNA and protein levels of the Bcl-2 apoptosis regulatory genes, bax, bad, bcl-2, and(More)
Using a double-label immunofluorescence method, we analyzed the time course of the appearance of Fos and Jun in the nuclei of supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurons following intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline. Fos and Jun immunostaining appeared within 30 min, peaked at 90-120 min, and disappeared 4-5 h later. At all time points (30, 60, 120, 180,(More)
Possible estrogen influences on oxytocin mRNA expression were studied in preoptic and anterior hypothalamic regions as might be important for behavioral as well as neuroendocrine controls. In situ hybridization for oxytocin mRNA determination was supported by immunocytochemical identification and was compared with vasopressin mRNA in situ hybridization.(More)
Each year in the US, ∼1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal(More)
Cullin-5 (cul-5), a member of the cullin gene family, may have a role in proteolysis and cell cycle regulation. Our recent study demonstrated that cul-5 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system and many peripheral organs. The present study used quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction to measure changes in cul-5 mRNA expression as(More)