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An analysis of annual energy flows in an arid tropical ecosystem inhabited by nomadic pastoralists provides insight into a subsistence life-style that has persisted in droughted environments for hundreds to thousands of years. Although a large fraction of the total energy consumed by the Ngisonyoka of Kenya followed a single pathway from plant to animal to(More)
Regulation of protein turnover is essential to the survival of eukaryotic cells. This important cellular process is partly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through posttranslational modification by the conjugation of ubiquitin chains to proteins targeted for degradation by proteasomes. The present study examined ubiquitin mRNA and protein(More)
Following cellular stress or tissue injury, the proteasome plays a critical role in protein degradation and signal transduction. The present study examined the beta-subunit expression of constitutive proteasomes (beta1, beta2, and beta5), immunoproteasomes (beta1i, beta2i, and beta5i) and the 11S proteasome activator, PA28alpha, in the rat CNS after(More)
The dopamine-producing neurons of the tuberoinfundibular region are known targets of estrogen and progesterone, and are of considerable neuroendocrine importance. To determine the anatomical distribution, and number of cells that contain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in the tuberoinfundibular region and other regions of the brain we carried out in situ(More)
A quantitative in situ hybridization analysis was used to investigate changes in levels of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of rats stimulated osmotically by giving 2% NaCl as drinking solution for 0 (control rats), 1, 4, and 14 days. The quantitation was autoradiographically accomplished by in situ hybridization with a(More)
Each year in the US, ∼1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal(More)
Using a double-label immunofluorescence method, we analyzed the time course of the appearance of Fos and Jun in the nuclei of supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurons following intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline. Fos and Jun immunostaining appeared within 30 min, peaked at 90-120 min, and disappeared 4-5 h later. At all time points (30, 60, 120, 180,(More)
Possible estrogen influences on oxytocin mRNA expression were studied in preoptic and anterior hypothalamic regions as might be important for behavioral as well as neuroendocrine controls. In situ hybridization for oxytocin mRNA determination was supported by immunocytochemical identification and was compared with vasopressin mRNA in situ hybridization.(More)
Morphological changes in the motor and sensory neurons in the lumbar spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia were investigated at different survival times following the injection of the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) into the medial gastrocnemius muscle. Unconjugated CTB, visualized immunohistochemically, was found to be retrogradely transported through(More)
To date, clinical trials have failed to find an effective therapy for victims of traumatic brain injury (TBI) who live with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric complaints. Pre-clinical investigators are now encouraged to include male and female subjects in all translational research, which is of particular interest in the field of neurotrauma given that(More)