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An analysis of annual energy flows in an arid tropical ecosystem inhabited by nomadic pastoralists provides insight into a subsistence life-style that has persisted in droughted environments for hundreds to thousands of years. Although a large fraction of the total energy consumed by the Ngisonyoka of Kenya followed a single pathway from plant to animal to(More)
The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor mRNA and NGF receptor protein was examined in the adult rat basal forebrain using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. NGF receptor mRNA and protein were detected within cells in the medial septum, diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Controls showed that the(More)
Cullin-5 (cul-5), a member of the cullin gene family, may have a role in proteolysis and cell cycle regulation. Our recent study demonstrated that cul-5 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system and many peripheral organs. The present study used quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction to measure changes in cul-5 mRNA expression as(More)
Following cellular stress or tissue injury, the proteasome plays a critical role in protein degradation and signal transduction. The present study examined the beta-subunit expression of constitutive proteasomes (beta1, beta2, and beta5), immunoproteasomes (beta1i, beta2i, and beta5i) and the 11S proteasome activator, PA28alpha, in the rat CNS after(More)
Each year in the US, ∼1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal(More)
Although the administration of progesterone has been shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanisms for this beneficial effect are still poorly understood. The present study examined the effects of progesterone on mRNA and protein levels of the Bcl-2 apoptosis regulatory genes, bax, bad, bcl-2, and(More)
Quantification of gene expression in a morphological context is an invaluable tool for neurobiological investigation. The ability to measure the quantity of specific mRNA molecules at the level of the single neuron permits one to monitor the modulation of complex cell synthetic activity of intact neuron populations. The cells of interest can be contiguous(More)
The distribution and physiological role of the neuropeptide, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and its three receptor subtypes, V1a, V1b and V2, has been well described. A fourth AVP receptor, VACM-1, was recently discovered and appears to be a member of the cullin gene family. The objective of this research is to characterize VACM-1 receptor mRNA expression in(More)
Regulation of protein turnover is essential to the survival of eukaryotic cells. This important cellular process is partly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through posttranslational modification by the conjugation of ubiquitin chains to proteins targeted for degradation by proteasomes. The present study examined ubiquitin mRNA and protein(More)
Cullin-5 (Cul-5), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that covalently binds ubiquitin to proteins targeted for degradation via the proteasome, was examined for its localization and distribution in the rat central nervous system (CNS). We showed cul-5 mRNA expression in rat neuronal, glial, and vascular endothelial cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(More)