Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris

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In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States. During the first few weeks of surveillance, the virus spread worldwide to 30 countries (as of May 11) by human-to-human transmission, causing the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to level 5 of 6. This virus has the(More)
Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses cause severe disease in humans, but the basis for their virulence remains unclear. In vitro and animal studies indicate that high and disseminated viral replication is important for disease pathogenesis. Laboratory experiments suggest that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation may contribute to disease severity. To assess the(More)
A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial(More)
BACKGROUND An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been reported in Hong Kong. We investigated the viral cause and clinical presentation among 50 patients. METHODS We analysed case notes and microbiological findings for 50 patients with SARS, representing more than five separate epidemiologically linked transmission clusters. We(More)
Despite extensive laboratory investigations in patients with respiratory tract infections, no microbiological cause can be identified in a significant proportion of patients. In the past 3 years, several novel respiratory viruses, including human metapneumovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and human coronavirus NL63,(More)
BACKGROUND In 1997, the first documented instance of human respiratory disease and death associated with a purely avian H5N1 influenza virus resulted in an overall case-fatality rate of 33%. The biological basis for the severity of human H5N1 disease has remained unclear. We tested the hypothesis that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation has a role. (More)
Human disease associated with influenza A subtype H5N1 re-emerged in January, 2003, for the first time since an outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997. Patients with H5N1 disease had unusually high serum concentrations of chemokines (eg, interferon induced protein-10 [IP-10] and monokine induced by interferon gamma [MIG]). Taken together with a previous report that(More)
Preparedness for a possible influenza pandemic caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. The spread of the virus to Europe and continued human infection in Southeast Asia have heightened pandemic concern. It remains unknown from where the pandemic strain may emerge; current attention is directed at Vietnam,(More)
Avian H9N2 influenza A virus has caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. Here we report that an H9N2 influenza virus infected a 5-year-old child in Hong Kong in 2003. To identify the possible source of the infection, the human isolate and other H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from Hong Kong poultry markets from January to October 2003 were(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the temporal progression of the clinical, radiological, and virological changes in a community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS We followed up 75 patients for 3 weeks managed with a standard treatment protocol of ribavirin and corticosteroids, and assessed the pattern of clinical disease, viral load,(More)