Joseph Sodroski

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The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells requires the sequential interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, with the CD4 glycoprotein and a chemokine receptor on the cell surface. These interactions initiate a fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Although gp120 can elicit virus-neutralizing antibodies, HIV(More)
Host cell barriers to the early phase of immunodeficiency virus replication explain the current distribution of these viruses among human and non-human primate species. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, efficiently enters the cells of Old World monkeys but encounters a block before(More)
During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01(More)
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that activate and direct the migration of leukocytes. There are two subfamilies, the CXC and the CC chemokines. We recently found that the CXC-chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant. Chemokines act on responsive leukocyte subsets through G-protein-coupled(More)
We examined the ability of chemokine receptors and related G protein-coupled receptors to facilitate infection by primary, clinical HIV-1 isolates. CCR5, when expressed along with CD4, the HIV-1 receptor, allowed cell lines resistant to most primary HIV-1 isolates to be infected. CCR3 facilitated infection by a more restricted subset of primary viruses, and(More)
The third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is immunodominant and contains features essential for coreceptor binding. We determined the structure of V3 in the context of an HIV-1 gp120 core complexed to the CD4 receptor and to the X5 antibody at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Binding of gp120 to cell-surface CD4 would position V3 so(More)
The remarkable diversity, glycosylation and conformational flexibility of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env), including substantial rearrangement of the gp120 glycoprotein upon binding the CD4 receptor, allow it to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Despite this complexity, the HIV-1 Env must retain conserved determinants(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins interact with receptors on the target cell and mediate virus entry by fusing the viral and cell membranes. The structure of the envelope glycoproteins has evolved to fulfill these functions while evading the neutralizing antibody response. An understanding of the viral strategies for(More)
The host restriction factor TRIM5alpha mediates species-specific, early blocks to retrovirus infection; susceptibility to these blocks is determined by viral capsid sequences. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5alpha variants from Old World monkeys specifically associate with the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) capsid and that this interaction depends on the TRIM5alpha B30.2(More)
HIV-1 replication requires transport of nascent viral DNA and associated virion proteins, the retroviral preintegration complex (PIC), into the nucleus. Too large for passive diffusion through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), PICs use cellular nuclear transport mechanisms and nucleoporins (NUPs), the NPC components that permit selective nuclear-cytoplasmic(More)