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Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a molecular signature of most viruses, and triggers inflammatory responses that prevent viral spread. TLR3 ectodomains (ECDs) dimerize on oligonucleotides of at least 40 to 50 base pairs in length, the minimal length required for signal transduction. To establish the molecular basis for(More)
We have identified and characterized two Imitation Switch genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ISW1 and ISW2, which are highly related to Drosophila ISWI, encoding the putative ATPase subunit of three ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors. Purification of ISW1p reveals a four-subunit complex with nucleosome-stimulated ATPase activity, as well as(More)
Neurotensin (NTS) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone through the activation of the neurotensin receptor NTSR1, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In the brain, NTS modulates the activity of dopaminergic systems, opioid-independent analgesia, and the inhibition of food intake; in the gut, NTS regulates a(More)
E. coli is the major bacterial platform for expressing simple heterologous proteins. Growing E. coli to high densities has been the subject of numerous studies since the early 1970s, exploring the limits of bacterial culture density in order to achieve maximum productivity. Research strategies were focused on improving the cultivation techniques,(More)
Distinct amino acid (aa) residue motifs for peptides binding to HLA-A1 and HLA-B8 were identified by sequence analyses of reversed-phase HPLC fractions containing endogenous peptides derived from these HLA molecules. Fifteen different primary sequences were determined for HLA-A1-associated peptides, 12 of which were nine aa in length. Common features among(More)
Two Escherichia coli strains, widely used for the production of various recombinant proteins, were compared for their pre-induction growth and acetate accumulation patterns. The strains studied were E. coli BL21 (lambdaDE3), transformed with a plasmid encoding Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and an E. coli K12 derived strain, JM109, carrying a plasmid encoding(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade that(More)
Tetrahymena pyriformis, Neurospora crassa, and Aspergillus fumigatus that had been grown in simple defined media were extracted with acid ethanol by a classic method for recovering insulin from pancreas. After filtration of the extracts on Sephadex G-50, distinct peaks of insulin immunoreactivity were recovered in the region typical of insulin. The(More)
The effect of the growth phase of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells on the production of recombinant proteins (beta-galactosidase and glucocerebrosidase) was investigated. Cells infected with the recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus at the late exponential and stationary phases yielded low quantities of expressed protein. Highest(More)