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Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a molecular signature of most viruses, and triggers inflammatory responses that prevent viral spread. TLR3 ectodomains (ECDs) dimerize on oligonucleotides of at least 40 to 50 base pairs in length, the minimal length required for signal transduction. To establish the molecular basis for(More)
We have identified and characterized two Imitation Switch genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ISW1 and ISW2, which are highly related to Drosophila ISWI, encoding the putative ATPase subunit of three ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors. Purification of ISW1p reveals a four-subunit complex with nucleosome-stimulated ATPase activity, as well as(More)
Neurotensin (NTS) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone through the activation of the neurotensin receptor NTSR1, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In the brain, NTS modulates the activity of dopaminergic systems, opioid-independent analgesia, and the inhibition of food intake; in the gut, NTS regulates a(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade that(More)
Two Escherichia coli strains, widely used for the production of various recombinant proteins, were compared for their pre-induction growth and acetate accumulation patterns. The strains studied were E. coli BL21 (lambdaDE3), transformed with a plasmid encoding Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and an E. coli K12 derived strain, JM109, carrying a plasmid encoding(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been found as monomers but also as dimers or higher-order oligomers in cells. The relevance of the monomeric or dimeric receptor state for G protein activation is currently under debate for class A rhodopsin-like GPCRs. Clarification of this issue requires the availability of well defined receptor preparations as(More)
E. coli is the major bacterial platform for expressing simple heterologous proteins. Growing E. coli to high densities has been the subject of numerous studies since the early 1970s, exploring the limits of bacterial culture density in order to achieve maximum productivity. Research strategies were focused on improving the cultivation techniques,(More)
In a series of previous reports it was established by implementing metabolic flux, NMR/MS, and Northern blot analysis that the glyoxylate shunt, the TCA cycle, and acetate uptake by acetyl-CoA synthetase are more active in Escherichia coli BL21 than in Escherichia coli JM109. These differences were accepted as the reason for the differences in the glucose(More)
The productivity of Escherichia coli as a producer of recombinant proteins is affected by its metabolic properties, especially by acetate production. Two commercially used E. coli strains, BL21 (lambdaDE3) and JM109, differ significantly in their acetate production during batch fermentation at high initial glucose concentrations. E. coli BL21 grows to an(More)
Acetate accumulation is a common problem observed in aerobic high cell density Escherichia coli cultures. A previous report has hypothesized that the glyoxylate shunt is active in a low acetate producer, E. coli BL21, and inactive in a high acetate producer, JM109. To further investigate this hypothesis, we now develop a model for the incorporation of (13)C(More)