Joseph S. Bertino

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OBJECTIVE Our objective was to compare simvastatin with the validated probe midazolam in the assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. METHODS This study used an open-label, fixed-sequential, 3-way crossover study design. Nineteen subjects received oral doses of 0.075 mg/kg midazolam and 40 mg simvastatin during 3 phases (baseline, after inhibition(More)
AIMS A non-invasive proposed method for measuring CYP3A activity is the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol:cortisol ratio. This ratio has been used as an indicator of CYP3A induction and inhibition, with mixed results. This investigation evaluated the relationship between a validated, biomarker, intravenous midazolam clearance and the urinary cortisol ratio(More)
Prior investigations have suggested the use of a dosing weight correction factor of ideal body weight (IBW) plus 40% excess body weight (EBW, where EBW = total body weight [TBW] - IBW) to determine the weight to use for aminoglycoside dosing in morbidly obese (TBW/IBW ratio, > 2) patients. Little data are available to provide dosing information for(More)
BACKGROUND Simultaneous administration of several probes enhances the utility of phenotyping, but poor specificity, side effects, and use of drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration limit the usefulness of prior phenotyping cocktails. OBJECTIVES To evaluate potential drug-drug interactions associated with use of a cocktail of caffeine,(More)
Cytochrome P450 phenotyping provides valuable information about real-time activity of these important drug-metabolizing enzymes through the use of specific probe drugs. Despite more than 20 years of research, few conclusions regarding optimal phenotyping methods have been reached. Caffeine offers many advantages for CYP1A2 phenotyping, but the widely used(More)
Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for(More)
This investigation examined whether or not a gender-related effect on theophylline pharmacokinetics and metabolism exists in smoking and nonsmoking subjects with and without the concurrent administration of cimetidine. With a crossover design, 28 healthy men and premenopausal women (14 in each group) were administered intravenous aminophylline before (phase(More)
Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical(More)
The absolute bioavailability of oral melatonin tablets was studied in 12 normal healthy volunteers. Subjects were administered, in a randomized crossover fashion, melatonin 2 mg intravenously and 2 and 4 mg orally. Blood was sampled over approximately eight (estimated) half-lives. Both the 2 and the 4 mg oral dosages showed an absolute bioavailability of(More)