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Cytochrome P450 phenotyping provides valuable information about real-time activity of these important drug-metabolizing enzymes through the use of specific probe drugs. Despite more than 20 years of research, few conclusions regarding optimal phenotyping methods have been reached. Caffeine offers many advantages for CYP1A2 phenotyping, but the widely used(More)
AIMS A non-invasive proposed method for measuring CYP3A activity is the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol:cortisol ratio. This ratio has been used as an indicator of CYP3A induction and inhibition, with mixed results. This investigation evaluated the relationship between a validated, biomarker, intravenous midazolam clearance and the urinary cortisol ratio(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to compare simvastatin with the validated probe midazolam in the assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. METHODS This study used an open-label, fixed-sequential, 3-way crossover study design. Nineteen subjects received oral doses of 0.075 mg/kg midazolam and 40 mg simvastatin during 3 phases (baseline, after inhibition(More)
BACKGROUND Simultaneous administration of several probes enhances the utility of phenotyping, but poor specificity, side effects, and use of drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration limit the usefulness of prior phenotyping cocktails. OBJECTIVES To evaluate potential drug-drug interactions associated with use of a cocktail of caffeine,(More)
This investigation examined whether or not a gender-related effect on theophylline pharmacokinetics and metabolism exists in smoking and nonsmoking subjects with and without the concurrent administration of cimetidine. With a crossover design, 28 healthy men and premenopausal women (14 in each group) were administered intravenous aminophylline before (phase(More)
The absolute bioavailability of oral melatonin tablets was studied in 12 normal healthy volunteers. Subjects were administered, in a randomized crossover fashion, melatonin 2 mg intravenously and 2 and 4 mg orally. Blood was sampled over approximately eight (estimated) half-lives. Both the 2 and the 4 mg oral dosages showed an absolute bioavailability of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of 150 mg/day fluvoxamine on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) by phenotyping with caffeine, dextromethorphan, and midazolam. METHODS Oral caffeine (2 mg/kg), oral dextromethorphan (30 mg), and intravenous midazolam (0.025 mg/kg) were administered to 10 white(More)
PURPOSE Drug resistance in brain tumors is partially mediated by the blood-brain barrier of which a key component is P-glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in cerebral capillaries. Tamoxifen is a nontoxic inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. This trial assessed, in primary and metastatic brain tumors, the differential deposition of paclitaxel and whether(More)