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Cytochrome P450 phenotyping provides valuable information about real-time activity of these important drug-metabolizing enzymes through the use of specific probe drugs. Despite more than 20 years of research, few conclusions regarding optimal phenotyping methods have been reached. Caffeine offers many advantages for CYP1A2 phenotyping, but the widely used(More)
The absolute bioavailability of oral melatonin tablets was studied in 12 normal healthy volunteers. Subjects were administered, in a randomized crossover fashion, melatonin 2 mg intravenously and 2 and 4 mg orally. Blood was sampled over approximately eight (estimated) half-lives. Both the 2 and the 4 mg oral dosages showed an absolute bioavailability of(More)
The effects of a 10-day course of moderate-dose (10 mg/kg/day) or high-dose (20 mg/kg/day) trimethoprim therapy on serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, urinary creatinine excretion, and serum folate were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Serum creatinine concentrations increased significantly during trimethoprim therapy, began to decrease near(More)
PURPOSE Drug resistance in brain tumors is partially mediated by the blood-brain barrier of which a key component is P-glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in cerebral capillaries. Tamoxifen is a nontoxic inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. This trial assessed, in primary and metastatic brain tumors, the differential deposition of paclitaxel and whether(More)
Previously, we have validated a 4-drug phenotyping cocktail, the "Cooperstown cocktail," using caffeine (cytochrome p450 [CYP] 1A2, N-acetyltransferase-2 [NAT2], and xanthine oxidase [XO]), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), omeprazole (CYP2C19), and intravenous midazolam (hepatic CYP3A). Data suggest that warfarin can be used as a safe and accurate biomarker for(More)
Drug-metabolizing enzyme activity is one of many factors affecting patient response to medications. The objective of this review is to highlight the potential for genetic variability in cytochrome P450 enzyme activity that can lead to interperson differences in response to drugs. Awareness and application of this knowledge will improve drug use in clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Simultaneous administration of several probes enhances the utility of phenotyping, but poor specificity, side effects, and use of drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration limit the usefulness of prior phenotyping cocktails. OBJECTIVES To evaluate potential drug-drug interactions associated with use of a cocktail of caffeine,(More)
Prior investigations have suggested the use of a dosing weight correction factor of ideal body weight (IBW) plus 40% excess body weight (EBW, where EBW = total body weight [TBW] - IBW) to determine the weight to use for aminoglycoside dosing in morbidly obese (TBW/IBW ratio, > 2) patients. Little data are available to provide dosing information for(More)
Incidence of and risk factors for aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity (AAN) were evaluated in 1489 patients prospectively monitored with individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring (IPM). Incidence of AAN was 7.9% with individual (univariate) risk factors including advanced age, decreased albumin, poor nutritional status, pneumonia, concurrent(More)